FFAC "The Cleopatra Project" Art Catalogue August 7 2022

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The exhibition also includes selected art from The Socrates Project, Poisonous Plants in Virginia.

Free parking is available under The Student Health and Wellness Center building. Turn onto Monroe Lane from Jefferson Park Avenue where RMC Event staff will direct you to park in levels P1or P2. To get to the reception, take elevators to Level 1.

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THE CLEOPATRA PROJECT EXHIBIT

This exhibit will hang at UVA’s Health and Wellness Center from August 19 through October, 2022 and will display original art by members of the Firnew Farm Artists’ Circle. The Cleopatra Project - Poisonous and Venomous Animals in Virginia was initiated in 2021 as a collaboration between the Virginia Master Naturalists (VMN) program, the Division of Medical Toxicology – Department of Emergency Medicine of the University of Virginia School of Medicine, and the University of Virginia Health’s Blue Ridge Poison Center. It will be published in December of 2022.

Cleopatra is the continuation of a previous collaborative project The Socrates Project - Poisonous Plants in Virginia , published in

2020, which may be seen online here: https://med.virginia.edu/brpc/socrates

The VMN program has been working closely with the Firnew Farm Artists’ Circle, particularly with its principal artist Trish Crowe, who designed the covers of both publications. You may learn about these artists and their work by going to: https://www.firnewfarmartistscircle.com/current-artists/ or you can contact Trish Crowe at FirnewFarmArtistsCircle@gmail.com The Virginia Master Naturalists who created The Cleopatra Project - Poisonous and Venomous Animals in Virginia , and The Socrates Project - Poisonous Plants in Virginia , can be contacted at Cleopatra.Socrates@gmail.com Exhibit contribution: Haiku © Kathleen Neff Aucoin Contact with poisonous plants and poisonous/venomous animals can be dangerous. Following exposure, please contact your local poison center at 1-800-222-1222 for appropriate advice.

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Sale of Cleopatra and Socrates Art

Starting August 19, the art will be for sale.

Please email FirnewFarmArtistsCircle@gmail.com with the name of the art you wish to purchase along with your preferred contact information (email or telephone). You will be contacted to discuss method of payment, any additional charges, and process for delivery of the art. Art will be available for pick up or delivery after the close of the exhibition.

You may learn about Firnew artists and their work by going to: https://www.firnewfarmartistscircle.com/current-artists/

To visit the Firnew website you may go to: https://www.FirnewFarmArtistsCircle.com

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CONTENTS

Cleopatra Project Animals

Page

Ants

6

Caterpillars (Moth Larvae)

10

Jellyfish

18

Newts

19

Scorpions

20

Shrews

21

Snakes

23

Spiders

26

Toads and Spadefoots

29

Wasps and Bees

34

Socrates Project Plants

Climbing Nightshade

38

Elderberry, Common and Elderberry, Red

39

Foxglove

40

Horse-nettle

41

Mountain Laurel

42

Poison Oak

43

Poison Sumac

44

5

Rhododendron and Azalea

45

White Snakeroot

46

Index

Cleopatra Artists and Art

47

Socrates Artists and Art

49

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Asian needle ant Brachyponera chinensis

Do I startle your stitching, needle ant, as I stride the forest floor?

Asian needle ants, native to areas of East Asia, have become invasive in Virginia. They nest in undisturbed forests hidden under rocks, stumps, and debris. Individuals display distinctive black coloration and orange appendages but, measuring roughly 1/8 inch long, they may only appear as a black speck to the naked eye. The Asian needle ant feeds primarily on termites and other dead insects. It is not aggressive; most stings result from accidental contact. Stings involve intense pain that fades and returns over several hours to many days. Seek medical care immediately if allergic symptoms occur.

Leslie Barham Asian Needle Ant Fabric Sculpture 12 x 12 x 3.5 $285

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Little fire ant (LFA) / Electric ant Wasmannia auropunctata

A tiny fire moves up my arm, fiercely burning– flames rage for an hour

A global pest, little fire ants reach about 1/20 inch long and pack a very painful sting. They establish colonies under rocks and plant litter, as well as in homes and other structures. In Virginia, this ant has been observed only once – in Lee County. The stingers cannot penetrate skin on adult human hands, but they can sting human children, animals, and eyes. The sting causes severe pain for an hour and gradually subsides; an eye sting may remain painful for over 12 hours and also cause lasting eye damage. Seek immediate medical attention if allergic symptoms occur or if stung around the eye.

Pat Brodowski Electric Ants Fighting on the Head of a Pin Acrylic 12 x 12 $600

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(No common name) Pseudomyrmex pallidus

O very small ant, orangey brown warns of the sting your size belies

The Pseudomyrmex pallidus , about 1/10 inch long, is not readily identifiable to the naked eye but has an orange-brown color. Sometimes called a tree-ant or twig-ant, it usually builds nests in dead twigs or branches of shrubs and trees. A single worker can easily plug the nest entrance with its own body to prevent predator access. Uncommon in Virginia, Pseudomyrmex has only been observed in the coastal southeast. Despite its very small size, this ant delivers an intense throbbing sting that may last an hour. The resulting welt may persist for 24 hours. Seek medical attention immediately if allergic symptoms occur.

Tina Wade Pseudomyrmex Ant Oil 12 x 12 $250

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Red imported fire ant (RIFA) Solenopsis invicta

Called unconqueréd–

aggressive with sting of fire, worldwide stowaway

Red imported fire ant (RIFA) workers vary in size from 1/16 to 1/4 inch and are considered an invasive pest. First found in Virginia’s Tidewater counties in 1989, they have since spread west along the North Carolina border. Watch out for RIFA ground-nest mounds in sunny moist places like pond shores, fields and walkways. Stings usually occur on the feet or legs after stepping on and disturbing a nest mound. Multiple stings are common, which produce a burning sensation for a few minutes, followed by a white blister that heals within two weeks. Seek medical attention immediately if allergic symptoms occur.

Patricia Williams Ready for Godzilla (Red Imported Fire Ant) Watercolor and Watercolor Pencil on Multimedia Artboard 12 x 12 $225

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American dagger moth caterpillar Acronicta americana

The canny bird knows with just a glance what the world’s beauty may offer

American dagger moth caterpillars, throughout Virginia, are most often observed in areas of deciduous trees and forests, feeding on the leaves of oak, ash, elm, alder, willow and maple. This 2 inch long caterpillar will surely catch your attention! Its body is covered in bright yellow-green bristles and accented with two pairs of extra long black spines extending up from the body near the head and midsection and a single cluster extending upward from its rear. But don’t handle this caterpillar – those bristles may deliver a burning sensation, a rash, or get stuck in your skin.

Chee Kludt Ricketts American Dagger Moth Caterpillar Acrylic 12 x 12 $325

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Black-waved flannel moth caterpillar Megalopyge crispata

A gray cloud conceals the bolt of venom waiting for my fingertip

Resembling a man’s toupee, these caterpillars carry sharp, protective spines beneath long, flowing hairs. They emerge from clusters of eggs laid by mature moths in woodlands and fields with woody growth. If you encounter these caterpillars as they wander, don’t touch them or brush at them. The spines cause a severe burning sensation, redness and swelling at the site of contact, that may last hours or days. Watch for allergic reactions to the sting and seek medical attention for swelling beyond the sting site or any difficulty breathing.

Ida Simmons Troll Doll to Einstein: Instars of a Flannel Moth Caterpillar Mixed media 12 x 12 $250

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Buck moth caterpillar Hemileuca maia

Once gregarious, the brushy line disperses seeking earth and change

Beware this spiny black caterpillar with white spots and a reddish head! These spines defend the caterpillar from predators and contain a toxin that causes an intense stinging reaction, likened to a bee sting. Adult moths lay their eggs primarily on oak trees. You may see groups of the small, newly hatched caterpillars moving in a line as they feed along the branches. When they are ready to form their chrysalids, they burrow into the leaf litter at the base of a tree, where they may stay for up to two years!

Cheryl Ragland Buck Moth Caterpillars Onyx, crystals, and glass beads on photograph 12 x 12 $200

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Grapeleaf skeletonizer Harrisina americana

Beneath the leaf, black and yellow buses park for al fresco lunch

The name says it all: this caterpillar can be found in vineyards, fields and woodland edges, munching leaves into lacey remains. Slightly more than a half inch long, their distinctive yellow bodies have black bands with tufts of short black stinging hairs across the abdomen. Look for these caterpillars lined up on the underside of the leaf. Contact with stinging hairs may cause redness, itchy skin or rashes for up to three days. Long sleeves, pants and gloves are advised as protection. Seek emergency medical attention for serious allergic reactions, including swelling beyond the sting site or difficulty breathing.

Anthony Ford # 35 Acrylic 12 x 12 $375

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Io moth caterpillar Automeris io

Sporty striped autos– if one comes your way, they are not fer steppin’ on

Io caterpillars – a striking green with red and white stripes across the abdomen – can reach an overall length of 2½ inches. They are virtually covered with spines that can penetrate human skin and break off to release venom. Io moths and caterpillars are found throughout Virginia’s fields, woodlands and water edges on trees, shrubs and grasses. The caterpillar sting is comparable to that of a stinging nettle plant, but longer-lasting. Wear long sleeves and pants to avoid getting stung, and get medical attention if eyes are affected or for serious allergic reactions, including face swelling or difficulty breathing.

Terrence Pratt lo Moth and Progeny Acrylic on board 12 x 12 $150

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Southern flannel moth caterpillar (Puss caterpillar) Megalopyge opercularis

Wandering in woods, shirt sleeves mark the memory of a puss cat sting

Stings of the flannel moth caterpillars are said to be the most potent as any of North America’s caterpillars. Contact with spines on live or dead caterpillars, their discarded skins or their cocoons, causes an intense burning sensation, redness and swelling. Resembling a man’s toupee or cat fur, of different colors at different stages, puss caterpillars live primarily in deciduous forests and may be encountered as you brush by trees or campsite features. Wear a long sleeved shirt and long pants to protect your skin from contact with the venomous spines.

Lea Doise Puss Caterpillar Oil 12 x 12 $140

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White flannel moth caterpillar Norape ovina

Precise yellow dots light a dark field with bristling harm–heed this warning

Take the yellow-orange-black warning coloration and visible spines of the white flannel moth caterpillar seriously. As with other flannel moth caterpillars, contact with the spines of live or dead caterpillars, discarded skins, or cocoons, cause an intense burning sensation followed by redness and swelling at the site of contact. These caterpillars feed in small groups in early stages and grow to about 1 inch. In areas with host plants -- such as elm, locust, hackberry, and redbud trees – protect your skin by wearing a long sleeve shirt and long pants. Seek medical attention if eyes are affected or for serious allergic reactions.

David Hawkins Norape Ovina Block Print on Paper Mounted on Board 12 x 12 $250

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White-marked tussock moth caterpillar Orgyia leucostigma

Does the forest know our yearning to savor each leaf on the journey?

This flamboyant caterpillar, nearly 1½ inches long and most often seen in forested areas, is found throughout Virginia. Its red head and yellow-and-black striped body warn off predators; its body features a protective array of spiky and barbed tufts of hairs, as well as clustered, long dark hairs near the head and extending upward from the rear end. Mature moths typically lay their eggs on woody plant bark and the caterpillars emerge and disperse in spring, feasting on the leaves of a broad array of trees. Remember not to touch these caterpillars – the hairs irritate human skin, resulting in a stinging sensation, redness, irritation, and welts.

Claudia Wisdom-Good The White-Marked Tussock Moth Mixed media and oil on board 12 x 12 $375

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Bay nettle Chrysaora chesapeakei

Bay nettle, waving long ruffled scarf and sheer fringe– meddlesome and gel

Bay nettles inhabit Virginia’s Chesapeake Bay area. Like us, they are most commonly seen afloat from March through October, when the bay waters are warmest. With a bell-shaped body and two dozen tentacles dangling down several feet, bay nettles range in colors from milky white, reddish brown to lurid purplish stripes. Jellyfish capture and eat their prey using their tentacles to sting and release venom. For humans, a brush with a tentacle can bring a painful sting. Keep a sharp watch and give bay nettles plenty of room.

Richard Wyvill Chesapeake Bay Nettle Oil 12 x 12 $150

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Red-spotted newt Notophthalmus viridescens viridescens

Spotted a newt in dappled leaves–a flash of red deftly gave warning

The red-spotted newt is a small salamander commonly found in Virginia, but unlike other members of the salamander family, newts pass through three distinct life stages after hatching from an egg. While larva and adults are both aquatic, juveniles called “efts” are terrestrial. Efts inhabit the shaded leaf layer of moist forests. Bright reddish-orange coloration serves to warn potential predators of the eft’s toxicity, which is ten times greater than an adult newt. The skin, muscles, and internal organs of the red-spotted newt contain a potent toxin that acts on the human nervous system and can lead to muscle paralysis. So, don’t eat and don’t touch it!

Kitty Dodd Red Spotted Newt Color Pencil 12 x 12 $375

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Southern devil scorpion Vaejovis carolinianus

Sparring in moonlight, the southern devil makes his diminutive point

This critter – small as a U.S. quarter–is a Lee County native in far southwestern Virginia. Dancing on eight legs, the southern devil scorpion wields two pincers and a venomous tail stinger for capturing and killing small prey. Scorpions hunt insects by night and by day hide under leaves, wood and stones. Check shoes and sleeping bags for these scorpions and don’t handle them. A Southern devil’s sting delivers sharp pain like a bee sting, lasting 15 minutes to several hours. And scorpions glow a blue-green under ultraviolet light or natural moonlight!

Frances Kloker Lacy Southern Devil Scorpion

Textiles 12 x 12 $300

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Northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda

Sated and snacking, the shrew sniffs and considers an ambling morsel

Ever hungry, shrews eat every few hours, 24-7-365. No hibernating, they go-go-go their entire lives. They especially love a place with a deep leaf layer; not too wet, not too dry, just right for worms, grubs, and other delicacies. Some have toxic saliva, a venom being studied for cancer treatment. Reputed to startle easily and die of fright at a sudden shock, only a few species have been studied. They share that ecological niche of small-sized, yet extremely populous mammals that feeds so much of the food chain. Cats won’t eat them, but lots of other animals do.

Anne Dean Northern Shrew Acrylic 12 x 12 $150

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Southern short-tailed shrew Blarina carolinensis

Sated and snacking, the shrew sniffs and considers an ambling morsel

Ever hungry, shrews eat every few hours, 24-7-365. No hibernating, they go-go-go their entire lives. They especially love a place with a deep leaf layer; not too wet, not too dry, just right for worms, grubs, and other delicacies. Some have toxic saliva, a venom being studied for cancer treatment. Reputed to startle easily and die of fright at a sudden shock, only a few species have been studied. They share that ecological niche of small-sized, yet extremely populous mammals that feeds so much of the food chain. Cats won’t eat them, but lots of other animals do.

Anne Dean Southern Shrew Acrylic 12 x 12 $150

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Eastern copperhead Agkistrodon contortrix

In the leaves, your coiled banded and watchful stillness. Jolted, we retreat.

Venomous copperheads are found throughout Virginia in forests, fields, swampy areas, suburban woodlots and around barns and houses. They reach 24 to 36 inches long, with a triangular head and vertical pupils. Copperheads display an overall coloration from tan to copper to gray, and very distinctive, darker brown hourglass- shaped crossbands around the body. While not aggressive, copperheads may shake their tail as a warning or bite when threatened, so leave them alone. Though their bite is rarely fatal, it will cause pain and may be followed by swelling, bruising and blistering at the bite site. Nausea and vomiting may occur. If bitten, seek immediate medical attention!

Cecilia Schultz Copper Acrylic 12 x 12 $100

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Northern cottonmouth (Water moccasin) Agkistrodon piscivorus

Wide and white, the mouth announces incidental intent for defense

The venomous cottonmouth snake lives in southeastern Virginia near swamps, marshes, and in woods and grasslands around ponds and rivers. They reach 30 to 48 inches long, with a triangular head, vertical pupils and a yellowish-olive to black body with darker crossbands. Look sharp and keep your distance from the cottonmouth–it warns off threats with a coiled body, shaking tail and a wide-open white mouth with fangs. Though fatalities are rare, the bite delivers venom and causes pain, swelling and blistering at the bite location. Seek immediate medical attention if bitten!

Janice Rosenberg Don’t Tread On Me (Northern Cottonmouth) Oil 12 x 12 $150

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Timber rattlesnake Crotalus horridus

A telltale rattle shaken in the den sends us scrambling off the rocks

Virginia ’ s venomous timber rattlesnakes inhabit the western mountain regions and, less commonly, the southeastern forests and swampy areas. These snakes, 30 to 60 inches long, have a broad, triangular head, vertical pupils and a distinctive rattle at the end of the tail. Color varies from pinkish to gray, yellowish-brown or dark brown head and body, with dark brown to black zig-zag bands. Be alert and stay back from these snakes. Their bite delivers venom that causes pain, swelling, bruising and blistering at the bite location. If left untreated, timber rattlesnake venom can cause organ damage or death within 2 - 3 days. Seek immediate medical attention if bitten!

Bonnie Dixon Coiled and Hiding Photo collage on photo card stock paper Images from the public domain 12 x 12 $75

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Northern black widow Latrodectus variolus

Elegant in black patent leather and red bow. Stop! Spider, biter.

Black widow spiders live all over Virginia and prefer dark, undisturbed areas like woodpiles, outbuildings, crawlspaces, and storage boxes. Only adult females deliver a significant bite to humans, so look sharp for this spider! She is 1½ inches long – including her legs – and has a shiny-black, round abdomen with a distinctive red hourglass marking on the underside. The venomous bite may leave two puncture marks on the skin and initially feel like pinpricks. This reaction may change quickly to intense pain and muscle spasms. Seek emergency medical care for a suspected black widow spider bite.

Vickie Watts Northern Black Widow Textile Sculpture 12 x 12 x 3 $330

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Southern black widow Latrodectus mactans

Elegant in black patent leather and red bow. Stop! Spider, biter.

Black widow spiders live all over Virginia and prefer dark, undisturbed areas like woodpiles, outbuildings, crawlspaces, and storage boxes. Only adult females deliver a significant bite to humans, so look sharp for this spider! She is 1½ inches long – including her legs – and has a shiny-black, round abdomen with a distinctive red hourglass marking on the underside. The venomous bite may leave two puncture marks on the skin and initially feel like pinpricks. This reaction may change quickly to swelling and intense pain and muscle spasms. Seek emergency medical care for a suspected black widow spider bite.

Trish Crowe Southern Black Widow Watercolor 12 x 12 $250

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Brown recluse spider Loxosceles reclusa

About that spider with a violin atop, a tip. No fiddlin’!

Brown recluse spiders are light brown with a characteristic dark brown violin-shaped marking on the upper anterior area. While most spiders have eight eyes, brown recluses have six. Venom causes cell death, or necrosis, immediately surrounding the bite. For most people, the bite heals within a few days or weeks. Occasionally, reactions become more severe, with skin-reddening and blistering, sometimes leading to discoloration, and ultimately a wound with necrotic tissue and scarring. Brown recluses inhabit dark, cluttered and undisturbed areas. Although not native to Virginia, accidental introductions of these spiders may occur through transportation of items from areas where native populations exist.

Sue Linthicum Brown Recluse Spider Acrylic 12 x 12 $350

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Eastern American toad Anaxyrus americanus americanus

Majestic chieftain with a tenor’s soaring trill– dearest voice of home

Eastern American toads hide by day in densely covered forest floors, camouflaged by their gray, olive, brown, or reddish coloring and pale stripe down their backs. They live throughout Virginia and walk rather than hop from place to place. Best spotted at night, they feed on various insects and soft ground creatures like earthworms and slugs. The male’s high trill calls females to springtime pools for breeding, where tadpoles then live and grow. This toad may “play dead” when startled or handled roughly. Wash hands after contact to avoid irritation to mucous tissues, like your eyes and nose.

Barb Wallace Romeo and Juliet Oil 12 x 12 $150

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Eastern spadefoot Scaphiopus holbrookii

The scrap! He hopes his golden eye and lyre beguile. Buoyant chorus–waaah–

The spadefoot has golden eyes with vertical pupils–like a cat eye– as well as two lyre-shaped stripes down its back and a black burrowing “spade” on each hind foot. Living most of the year underground, they have been observed in Virginia’s Coastal Plain, Piedmont and Blue Ridge Mountains. Look sharp for Eastern spadefoots at night in heavy rains; they congregate in flooded low spots and the breeding males call with a short, repeating “waaah.” These creatures protect themselves with an irritating liquid secretion. Wash your hands if you touch one.

Kitty Dodd Eastern Spadefoot Color Pencil 12 x 12 $275

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Fowler’s toad Anaxyrus fowleri

Both of us seeking, a pale, straight stripe scoots away from my startled light

Fowler’s toads, seen mostly at night, inhabit every part of Virginia and its diverse habitats of woodlands, grasslands, river and stream banks, and beaches. Usually brown or gray, these toads display a light-colored stripe down their backs, with three or more warts on the large dark spots alongside the stripe. Fowler’s toads enjoy favorite foods, ants and beetles. In late spring, the males make a buzzy -- nasal call, sounding somewhat like a baby’s cry or sheep’s bleat. When startled, they quickly hop away. Wash your hands after contact to avoid irritation to your eyes and nose.

John Berry Fowler’s Toad Cyanotype on cotton fabric, wrapped and glued 12 x 12 $100

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Oak toad Anaxyrus quercicus

Oaken toad with stripe, tiny, sodden, seeking–cheep– Dismal spring delight

Tiny treasures, oak toads grow to a little more than an inch long and sport a distinctive light stripe down the center of its dark back. They live around pine or oak trees and frequently forage for insect food during the day. Oak toads breed in aquatic environments, often triggered by heavy rain, from April to October. The male’s call is a chirp that sounds like a peeping chick. They live south of the James River in far southeastern Virginia and are North America’s smallest toad species. Wash your hands after contact to avoid irritation to your eyes and nose.

Tina Wade Oak Toads Oil 12 x 12 $250

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Southern toad Anaxyrus terrestris

Crested southern king greets March and chilly love–brrrrrrrr– the hushed burrow waits

Look and listen for Southern toads in Virginia’s southeastern Coastal Plain. They love the night life, spending their days in soft burrows and emerging after dark to dine on snails, beetles, ants and crickets. Mating occurs from March through September; males gather and call to females in a high trill lasting 5 to 10 seconds. Comfortable in human environments with nearby freshwater, Southern toads may be seen after dark eating insects attracted to outdoor lights. Remember, toads protect themselves with an irritating skin toxin, so wash your hands if you touch one.

Patricia Williams Now You See Him, Now You Don’t (Southern Toad) Watercolor on Multimedia Artboard 12 x 12 $225

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Bald-faced hornet Dolichovespula maculata

In flight overhead a barrel roll of the dice– lucky for today

The bald-faced hornet, actually a large yellowjacket wasp, bears a white-striped ("bald") face and white markings on a black body. As an omnivore, it consumes other insects and also drinks nectar, thus helping to both control insect populations and aid pollination. Colonies live from spring through fall and construct large paper nests in bushes and trees. Fertilized new queens hibernate to begin anew next spring. Highly territorial, bald-faced hornets attack intruders near their nest and often sting multiple times. The pain of their sting dissipates after 24 hours. If signs of allergic reaction occur, seek immediate medical attention.

Ellen Copeland Maynard the Bald-Faced Hornet Oil on Board 12 x 12 $100

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European hornet Vespa crabro

A marvel, really, of paper engineering– built without permits

European hornets are very large, black wasps with yellow markings on the face and abdomen. Primarily carnivorous, they hunt other large insects, including bees. Hornets site their large nests – up to two feet high – in dark crevices, and build them out of paper comb. Colonies die off in late summer and only a fertilized queen shelters through winter and emerges in spring to establish a new colony. Normally shy, European hornets will vigorously defend their nests and can sting multiple times. The sting’s pain is comparable to that of a honey bee and usually fades within a few hours. Seek immediate medical attention if allergic symptoms occur.

Ida Simmons Don’t Bother Me: I’m Looking for Food Mixed media 12 x 12 $250

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Western honey bee Apis mellifera

At pond’s edge, I share a moment with the sisters sipping cool water

Honey bee workers live with thousands of sisters, hundreds of indolent brothers and their mother, the queen. While foraging on flowers, a honey bee has little time to bother with people, but she will sacrifice her life defending her hive from an intruder ’ s threat. She dies after only one sting – the stinger remains in your skin and pulls out some of her guts. Quickly remove a stinger from your skin – it continues to pump venom for up to a minute – and monitor for symptoms of an allergic reaction. In the 1700s, colonists introduced honey bees to North America; in Virginia today, these bees share pollination work with 460 species of native bees.

Patty Kennedy Hudson Western European Honeybee Acrylic on panel 12 x 12 $300

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Yellowjackets Vespula species

Our summer rumble ended with stinging remarks and a slammed front door

If you have a striped, winged, and rather bold uninvited guest at your picnic, it’s probably a yellowjacket. Some nest underground – looking like small black and yellow fighter jets shooting in and out of a hole – while others build papery nests on porches or in bushes. Yellowjackets hunt caterpillars and aphids and do a bit of pollinating, too, so they’re not all bad. Steer clear of them when you can; they deliver multiple stings, causing pain and swelling. Seek medical attention with multiple stings or if you see symptoms of an allergic reaction.

Jon Perry Heading Home Acrylic 12 x 12 $125

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THE SOCRATES PROJECT – Poisonous Plants in Virginia

Climbing Nightshade Solanum dulcamara

Climbing Nightshade is a non-native, woody vine with alternate spearhead-like leaves and purple to blue star-shaped flowers with a yellow center. It can be found frequently in the understory of disturbed forests, forest edges and wet, rich soils of Virginia ’ s mountains. It is infrequent in the Piedmont and is considered rare in the coastal areas. Climbing Nightshade produces small, egg- shaped berries that ripen from green to bright red throughout summer and early autumn. Do not touch or eat any part of this plant! All parts of the plant are toxic to mammals, including humans, and the most toxic part of the plant is the unripe fruit. If handled, the plant may cause skin irritation. Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea are the most common symptoms reported following accidental ingestion.

Patricia Williams Climbing Nightshade, Solanum Dulcamara, Has More Fun Watercolor on Paper (sealed with Krylon) 12 x 12 $250

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Elderberry, Common Sambucus canadensis

Elderberry, Red Sambucus racemose

These two Elderberries are native shrubs that grow throughout Virginia except at the highest elevations. They range from 2 to 20 feet tall, with compound leaves that have a skunk-like odor. Elderberry blooms between May and September and fruits between July and October. Common Elderberry flowers are white, creamy or yellow and are fragrant, whereas Red Elderberry flowers are typically white. Fruits are small berries, black to purple (Common Elderberry) or red (Red Elderberry) when ripe. Except for ripe, cooked berries of the Common Elderberry, all parts of both Common and Red Elderberry are poisonous. Ingestion may cause nausea, vomiting diarrhea, weakness, numbness, headache, and dizziness. Skin contact may cause a rash.

Gail Trimmer-Unterman Elderberry Watercolor 12 x 12 $150

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Foxglove Digitalis purpurea

Foxglove is a non-native biennial plant with soft, hairy, toothed, egg- and lance-shaped leaves. Leaves are gray-green and 4 to 12 inches wide. Flower spikes have purple to white spotted thimble- like flowers that droop from spikes near the top of the flowering stem and last about six days. All parts of the plant contain toxins that affect the heart. Ingestion can be fatal at any time during the life of the plant, however it is most toxic just before the seeds ripen. Symptoms include potentially fatal changes in heart rhythm and pulse, as well as nausea, vomiting diarrhea, headache, weakness, drowsiness, hallucinations and confusion.

Sara Schneidman Purple Foxglove Watercolor 12 x 12 $500

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Horse-nettle Solanum carolinense

Horse-nettle grows throughout Virginia in pastures, roadsides, and disturbed areas. The plant may grow up to 3 feet tall but is usually shorter. Horse-nettle leaves are covered with hairs and spines and smell like potatoes when crushed. The plant blooms from April to October, displaying small white or purple flowers with yellow centers. All parts of the plant contain the toxic chemical solanine. The majority of reports of human toxicity is from eating the fruits, which are approximately ½ inch in diameter and resemble small tomatoes. Symptoms include nausea, stomach cramps and diarrhea. Horse-nettle poisoning is rarely fatal; the fatalities that do occur are more often found in children, and then, only when larger quantities of the plant are eaten.

Chee Ricketts Solanum carolinense Acrylic on Masonite Panel 12 x 12 $325

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Mountain Laurel Kalmia latifolia

Mountain Laurel is an evergreen shrub or small tree that grows from 7 to nearly 30 feet tall. It is found throughout Virginia often growing in large thickets. Its flowers, with 5 petals that are fused together and saucer-shaped, range from red to pink to white and grow in clusters, blooming and fruiting between March and July. All parts of the plant are toxic to humans. Toxic effects may also occur from ingestion of honey made from its nectar. Symptoms include watery eyes, runny nose, salivation, nausea and vomiting, as well as less common more severe respiratory and other systemic reactions.

Janice Rosenberg Mountain Laurel Oil 12 x 12 $100

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Poison Oak Toxicodendron pubescens

Poison Oak grows as a perennial shrub, generally less than 3 feet high, and prefers dry habitats. Commonly found in the Coastal Plain, it is infrequent throughout other parts of Virginia. Poison Oak stems, leaf stems and flower petals have a velvety covering; the leaves are compound with three leaflets that are wavy on the edges. The plant flowers in early summer and produces velvety gray or tan berries. Avoid touching or burning Poison Oak! All parts of the plant contain the oily substance, urushiol, which can cause itching, burning and blistering of the skin at the site of contact. Smoke from burning Poison Oak can cause severe symptoms and damage to eyes and lungs.

Kitty Dodd Poisoned Oak Socrates Color Pencil 12 x 12 $302

44

Poison Sumac Toxicodendron vernix

Poison Sumac, commonly 5 to 20 feet tall, grows in acidic swamps, bogs and moist clearings. It is found infrequently in the Coastal Plains of southeast Virginia and is rare in the Piedmont and mountains. Poison Sumac ’ s leaf structure, resembling a feather, has a main leaf shaft with between 6 and 12 parallel rows of oval, smooth-edged leaflets and one single leaf at the end. The plant produces clusters of small white flowers that become berries in the fall. Don ’ t touch or burn Poison Sumac! All parts of the plant contain the oily substance, urushiol, which can cause a painful rash at the site of skin contact. Smoke from burning Poison Sumac can cause severe symptoms and damage to eyes and lungs.

Cheryl Ragland Poison Sumac in the Autumn Copper, Suede & Snow Quartz 12 x 12 Not for Sale

45

Rhododendron and Azalea Rhododendron species

Nine species of Rhododendrons and Azaleas are found in habitats throughout Virginia. The evergreen species generally have large, leathery, dark green leaves and are covered with clusters of tubular flowers (white to rose-pink to lilac) with flaring petals and long stamens. The deciduous azaleas produce flowers before leafing out. All parts of these plants contain the toxin, grayanotoxin. Symptoms after ingestion may include heart and nervous system complications, mouth irritation, salivation, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Ingestion of large amounts, especially from honey made from the nectar, may cause confusion, muscle weakness, low blood pressure, lowered heart rate, seizures, and life-threatening heart irregularity.

Frances Lacy Rhododendron Acrylic 12 x 12 $250

46

White Snakeroot Ageratina altissima

White Snakeroot is found in Virginia ’ s upland forests, forest edges and in open, disturbed areas. It grows to a height of 18 to 48 inches and displays clusters of small white flowers from late summer through fall. The flower clusters can be up to 6 inches across. All parts of White Snakeroot contain a toxin called tremetol. This toxin can be passed to humans if a person eats either meat or dairy products from livestock that consumed large quantities of the plant, causing a condition referred to as “ milk sickness.” Symptoms of tremetol poisoning include loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and may progress to coma and death.

Anne Dean White Snakeroot Watercolor, varnished 12 x 12 $150

47

Index – Cleopatra Art

Artist, Animal Name and Page Number

Barham, Leslie: Asian needle ant

7

Berry, John: Fowler’s toad

32

Brodowski, Pat: Little fire ant (LFA) / Electric ant

8

Copeland, Ellen: Bald-faced hornet

35

Crowe, Trish: Southern black widow

28

Dean, Anne: Northern short-tailed shrew

22

Dean, Anne: Southern short-tailed shrew

23

Dixon, Bonnie: Timber rattlesnake

26

Dodd, Kitty: Eastern spadefoot

31

Dodd, Kitty: Red-spotted newt

20

Doise, Lea: Southern flannel moth caterpillar (Puss caterpillar) 16

Ford, Anthony: Grapeleaf skeletonizer

14

Hawkins, David: White flannel moth caterpillar

17

Hudson, Patty Kennedy: Western honey bee

37

Lacy, Frances Kloker: Southern devil scorpion

21

Linthicum Sue: Brown recluse spider

29

Perry, Jon: Yellowjackets

38

48

Pratt, Terrence: Io moth caterpillar

15

Ragland, Cheryl: Buck moth caterpillar

13

Ricketts, Chee Kludt: American dagger moth caterpillar 11

Rosenberg, Janice: Northern cottonmouth (Water moccasin) 25

Schultz, Cecilia: Eastern copperhead

24

Simmons, Ida: Black-waved flannel moth caterpillar

12

Simmons, Ida: European hornet

36

Wade, Tina: (No common name)

9

Wade, Tina: Oak toad

33

Wallace, Barb: Eastern American toad

30

Watts, Vickie: Northern black widow

27

Williams, P atricia: Red imported fire ant (RIFA)

10

Williams, Patricia: Southern toad

34

Wisdom-Good, Claudia: White-marked tussock moth caterpillar 17

Wyvill, Richard: Bay nettle

19

49

Index – Socrates Art

Artist, Plant Name and Page Number

Dean, Anne: White Snakeroot

47

Dodd, Kitty: Poison Oak

44

Lacy, Frances Kloker: Rhododendron and Azalea

46

Ragland, Cheryl: Poison Sumac

45

Ricketts, Chee Kludt: Horse-nettle

42

Rosenberg, Janice: Mountain Laurel

43

Schneidman, Sara: Foxglove

41

Trimmer-Unterman: Elderberry, Common and Elderberry, Red 40

Williams, Patricia: Climbing Nightshade

39

Sale of Cleopatra and Socrates Art

Starting August 19, the art will be for sale.

Please email FirnewFarmArtistsCircle@gmail.com with the name of the art you wish to purchase along with your preferred contact information (email or telephone). You will be contacted to discuss method of payment, any additional charges, and process for delivery of the art. Art will be available for pick up or delivery after the close of the exhibition.

You may learn about Firnew artists and their work by going to: https://www.firnewfarmartistscircle.com/current-artists/

To visit the Firnew website you may go to: https://www.FirnewFarmArtistsCircle.com

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