C+S September 2021 Vol. 7 Issue 9 (web)


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THE COVER New Facility Provides Opportunity for Students and Researchers at the University of Arkansas – story on page 10

CHANNELS ENVIRONMENTAL + SUSTAINABILTY 12 Making Construction and Demolition Waste Work Towards a Sustainable Future 13 Green Infrastructure & Low-Impact Development Solutions Using 3D Cellular Confinement STRUCTURES + BUILDINGS 15 Fit to Fly: New Air Force Fitness Center 18 Modular in Modern Times 19 When Cranes Fly 21 Post-Contract Departments will Play a Critical Role in Saudi Arabia’s Growth 23 Working From Here: Delivering Acoustic Sanity in Multi- Family and Mixed Use Buildings in the Post-COVID Era 24 Code Changes Advance Mass Timber Across California 27 Lightweight Cellular Concrete for MSE wall backfill in Hawaii 28 Adjacent Construction Projects - Methodology for Allowable Support of Excavation Movement 35 Digitization: Bringing Systems Thinking to Infrastructure Projects 37 Everything’s Bigger in Texas: A P3 Mega Roadway Project Comes to Life on an Accelerated Timeline WATER + STORMWATER 39 Passive Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems Offer High Performance and Low Operation and Maintenance Costs for Large Projects 42 Lifting a Community, a Holistic Approach BUSINESS NEWS 44 Inside A ‘Land Exhibit’ 45 Are Small Daily Losses Eating Up Your Budget? How the Most Competitive Teams are Controlling Costs 47 Women Leaders Paving the Way in the Northern Pacific SOFTWARE + TECHNOLOGY 48 Modular Data Analytics and Reporting in Facility Management - Five Modules 51 Smart, Predictive Data is Driving the Future of the AEC Industry SURVEYING 53 Alaskan Cruise 54 The Threat from Below 56 The Future of Land Surveying TRANSPORTATION + INFRASTRUCTURE 32 Reimagine the Future of Transportation departments 8 Events 44 Reader Index Columns 5 From the Publisher: Making your AEC firm known Chad Clinehens 6 Engineering Front Line: Now is the Time to Invest in Our Workforce Jamie Claire Kiser




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VOLUME 7 ISSUE 9 csengineermag.com

publisher Chad Clinehens, P.E. | 479.856.6097 | cclinehens@zweiggroup.com media director Christy Zweig | 479.445.7564 | czweig@zweiggroup.com Production & circulation manager Anna Finley | 479.435.6850 | afinley@zweiggroup.com ART director Maisie Johnson | 417.572.4561 | mjohnson@zweiggroup.com Editor Luke Carothers | lcarothers@zweiggroup.com

800-466-6275 1200 North College Avenue, Fayetteville, AR 72703 PO BOX 1528, Fayetteville, AR 72702-1528



Civil + Structural Engineer (ISSN 23726717) is published monthly by Zweig Group, 1200 North College Avenue, Fayetteville, AR 72703. Telephone: 800.466.6275. Copyright© 2020, Zweig Group. Articles cannot be reproduced in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher. Opinions expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of Zweig Group. Unsolicited manuscripts will not be returned unless accompanied by a stamped, self-addressed envelope. Subscriptions: Annual digital subscription is free. To subscribe or update your subscription information, please visit our website www.csengineermag.com/ subscribe/ or call 800.466.6275.

For subscriptions or change of address, please visit our website csengineermag.com/subscribe/ or call 800-466-6275

Help us help you! Zweig Group’s 2021 Fee & Billing Survey Report of AEC Firms is the standard guideline for AEC industry rms looking to benchmark fees, billing rates, and billing practices, and evaluate productivity and utilization. Data is collected from an online survey of architecture, engineering, planning, construction, and environmental consulting industry professionals.

Take the Survey!



september 2021

from the publisher

From roads, to airports, to neighborhoods, to office buildings – civil and structural engineers touch the lives of people everyday. The general public uses these facilities all day long, yet many people do not fully understand what engineers do. As an industry, we need to do a better job of increasing visibility around what we do. The recruiting and retention challenge in the AEC industry is reason enough to think bigger about how we can capture attention and draw people to our firms. One of the strategies I recommend AEC firms employ to drive performance is to maximize brand visibility. Brand Visibility can be defined as the frequency at which people see your brand, anywhere. Unfor - tunately, when we say brand in the AEC industry, most think of it in far too small of terms, focusing on websites, proposals, brochures, and similar marketing materials. Those are all very important, but usually are seen only by a small audience, and one that already understands what the firm does. You can increase your reach by focusing on things that are visible to the general public. Consider some of the following tips to increase your brand visibility. • Make your vehicles stand out-- Vehicles are a great way to expand your brand if you think of them like moving billboards. Stop buying white vehicles like everyone else and get a color that stands out. Black, red, blue, or a color that matches your logo. Then make sure the company name and logo stand out. If you really want to stand out, you could get a “wrap” which allows you to cover your car in a graphic design. Think Checker Cab. They used Checker cars, originally. You knew it was them when you saw one. How can you use this tactic as a design or construction firm? Just get every car to be something that is unique and make sure they are all painted in a unique color scheme. People will start seeing them “everywhere.” • Brand your equipment -- Equipment such as trailers or boats or drilling rigs, or even laptop cases, should also contribute to brand visibility. Brand every item your staff uses so that it shows clearly your company is your company, not some other firm. Additionally, branded equipment bonds your teams together. People like to have matching gear that stands out. This includes attire. Invest in the logo wear as it increases your brand visibility significantly. • Go big with building signage -- Make sure every office you have employs the biggest sign allowed by law. People will start knowing your name even if they don’t know anything about what you do. That’s fine— that’s a great first step in achieving more brand visibility. • Make project signage a priority- - Put up big signs everywhere you can. The construction side of the business is really where people see the design come to life and is an opportunity for every AEC firm to connect engineer- ing design and its impact on the world. Most people get excited about new projects and amenities in their com- munities, we should be proud of our roles as designers and show the public that “this is what we do ''. One of the pillars of Zweig Group’s Elevate The Industry vision is promotion. It is important because we need to promote the engineering profession and attract more students. STEM programs are a step in the right direction, but there are many other things that AEC firms could do to aid in this cause. Brand visibility drives business success, but it also elevates the industry!

Making your AEC firm known

Chad Clinehens

CHAD CLINEHENS, P.E., is Zweig Group’s president and CEO. Contact him at cclinehens@zweiggroup.com.


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It’s no revelation that rising costs and inflation are upon us amid concerns about labor shortages. The impact of these increased expenses–from the price of lumber to office supplies to food–affects every employee, every client, and every project. This is a time to re-evaluate every penny of our cost structures, which means a disciplined approach to inflows and outflows of cash and energy, and ensuring that our investments are going to our workforce. It is also important to consider the scarcity of resources side of the equation within our own businesses. Gallup reported in a recent analysis that 48 percent of America’s working population is actively search - ing for or watching for new employment opportunities, bringing on the topic of the impending “Great Resignation” in most industries across the country. It is incredibly difficult to find staff; enrollment in most career fields within our industry is at most optimistically level, but otherwise it is shrinking if not freefall - ing. There are a few topics that need to be unpacked here such as the real need to commit to culture and put employee experience first. With expertise constrained, capacity to perform limited, and in some circumstances, ability to execute out - side of our industry’s control, we are reminded that we have the ability to chart our own destinies. If you are a principal, rainmaker, or business developer, make sure your clients are aware of the inflection point we are dealing with. There is no reason for our industry to race to the bottom when backlog has spiked to a median of 9.3 months, a ten year high according to Zweig Group’s 2021 Financial Performance Report. The second highest year in the last decade was 2019, with a median of 7.9 months of backlog. First, we ought to ensure that our pricing matches the offering. Negotiating needs to be a core competency to succeed as a leader of a design firm; our clients know how to push back and we have got to match in kind. Second, it’s time to underscore delegation. If you are doing a single thing that someone below you is capable of doing, you are further short-circuiting your company’s margin. According to our research, backlog is overwhelming, staff are experiencing burnout, utilization is at a record high, employee feedback responses in our Best Firm to Work For research indicate that we have had an understandably difficult time maintaining meaningful mentorship programs in our industry during the pandemic. Additionally, wages are not rising at the same clip as operating expenses. Many of the firms that Zweig Group works for today are well capitalized; but perhaps the totally novel circumstances of our industry and economic factors are causing us to pause before investing in “overhead” like employee engagement or training, which feels like a real risk to medium-term value. Instead, this is a good time to benchmark against revenue factor instead of utilization, to better tie the return on the labor dollar to ef - ficiency evaluations that are more holistic than purely focusing on the number of hours billed. And, if we have to make nightmare deadlines work, don’t compromise the margin to do so. Time is so valuable; if clients want to jump to the front of the line, that must be of value to them. Your best clients will want you to retain the folks they enjoy working with and will join you in finding solutions if you bring them into the conversation – they are very likely dealing with extremely similar challenges too. Evaluate your fees and, if it is time to raise them, do so with confidence that being the lowest cost service provider is not as great of a market position to take than being the best partner to your clients. Your staff have so many more options – don’t burn them out or expect them to be eager to give up another night or weekend so a PM or principal can get something done on time without monetizing that objective. If your business does not resemble the above remarks, it is time to be viscerally aggressive in recruiting. Triple down on taking care of your colleagues – send firm-wide kudos, pay bonuses, hear out weird ben - efits, hand-write thank you notes, buy dinner if people are working late to hit a team deadline - celebrate relentlessly. Without talented teams, the incredible work we are highlighting in this month’s issue would not be possible.

Now is the Time to Invest in Our Workforce Jamie Claire Kiser

JAMIE CLAIRE KISER is managing principal and director of advisory services at Zweig Group. Contact her at jkiser@zweiggroup.com.



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Over 40 speakers. Up to 30 credit hours. All free and accessible from the comfort of your own home or office over the course of 4 weeks. The incredibly popular and value-packed Virtual ElevateAEC Conference & ElevateHER Symposium takes place between Sept 13 and Oct 7. General learning sessions will cover a wide range of topics that address all aspects of an AEC business, including recruitment & retention, tax credits, marketing strategies, and more. Through the carefully curated mini series, attendees will also get to sample our highly-regarded seminars including: The Principals Academy, Elevating Doer-Sellers, Project Management for AEC Professionals, and Leadership Skills for AEC Professionals. The ElevateHER Symposium brings together leaders in the AEC industry, Zweig Group’s ElevateHER 2021 cohort members, and keynote speakers on topics related to recruiting & retaining valuable employees, and fostering a diverse and equitable workplace. Project teams from Zweig Group’s 2021 ElevateHER cohort will also be presenting their project findings, offering tangible, actionable solutions to firm leaders to combat biases in the industry.

With much excitement and an abundance of precaution, Zweig Group is thrilled to restore the full annual in-person conference this winter; presenting the highest level of curated thought leadership, purposeful networking opportunities, and the iconic black- tie awards gala celebrating all our 2021 Zweig Group Award winners. The in-person conference is designed with safety in mind - the space and experience will adapt to the local health officials’ guidance at that time in order to keep attendees and staff safe while allowing for an unforgettable in-person experience.

REGISTER NOW FOR $1,995 PP NOV. 3 - 5, 2021 DENVER, CO


For group registrations and discounts, or any other inquiries about the two conferences, please contact events@zweiggroup.com. Or visit https://www.zweiggroup.com/2021-conferences for more details.

events + virtual Events

september 2021

Modern Application Development for Digital Transformation september 23 Application Architecture Summit is a multi-vendor virtual event where experts explore application platforms, frameworks and tools for low- hassle and light-speed app development, testing, delivery and security. https://www.idevnews.com/registration/?event_id=520 Talk/demo/Q&A with Replica CEO Nick Bowden. It’s never been more important for cities to have accurate, reliable data that reflects the full complexity of the built environment. The right data can better equip you to help your clients plan for a post-COVID transit recovery, design transportation networks that connect people to opportunity, determine the equity impacts of large-scale projects, and discover who’s most likely to trade car trips for walking and biking. These are just some of the ways Replica data has been utilized by architecture, engineering, and consulting partners, nationwide. Join CEO Nick Bowden on September 23rd to learn how the Replica platform has helped engineering firms and their public sector clients solve the built environment’s most complex problems. https://csengineermag.com/solving-all-the-right-problems-webinar/ Solving all the right problems september 23 Explore an array of heavy lifting and specialized transport equipment at our state-of-the-art Russellville, Arkansas facility! Demonstrations will be conducted throughout each day on the following:Hydraulic Gantries, In-plant Transporters & Self-Propelled Modular Transporters (SPMTs), Engineered Rigging's custom load manipulator, Skidding Systems – high-capacity Power-Slide system and low-height skidding systems, Synchronized Lift Columns & Custom Platforms, Enerpac Cube Jack Systems, Synchronized Split Flow Pump Systems with up to 16 lifting points, Strand Jack Systems & custom applications, Knuckle Boom Cranes, High-Capacity Sling Adjusters / SyncHoist Systems. https://engineeredrigging.com/demo-days/ october 2021 The UAV Innovation Expo is UK's largest Event dedicated to UAV products, parts, accessories and services. Designed to inspire, inform and connect. A new show for new technologies that focus on commercial, emergency services, humanitarian aid, disaster relief, and military fields. Choose from over 100 seminars, where key individuals and experts in their fields will share their knowledge, stories, and advice, covering a whole multitude of UAV Topics. Over the course of 2 days; Source ideas, information and advice from like-minded individuals, to get your next UAV venture fully equipped! https://www.dronexpo.co.uk/ engineered rigging demo days september 27 - October 1 – russellville, ar drone x trade show and conferece october 5-6 – London, england

Euro-Global Conference on Biotechnology and Bioengineering september 6-8 – Rome, italy Magnus group takes the honor to invite you all the participants to Euro- Global Conference on Biotechnology and Bioengineering (ECBB 2021) takes place on September 06-08, 2021 at Rome, Italy under the theme ‘Addressing Current Challenges in Biotechnology and Bioengineering’. https://biotechnology-conferences.magnusgroup.org/register Commercial UAV Expo Americas 2021 is where the commercial drone community gathers to learn, connect, and drive the industry forward. In addition to content about new opportunities and challenges the industry is facing due to COVID-19, industries covered include Construction; Drone Delivery; Energy & Utilities; Forestry & Agriculture; Infrastructure & Transportation; Mining & Aggregates; Public Safety & Emergency Services; Security; and Surveying & Mapping. It is presented by Commercial UAV News and organized by Diversified Communications. https://www.expouav.com/ Commercial UAV Expo Americas september 7-9 – las vegas, nv 2021 Virtual Elevate AEC Conference & ElevateHER Symposium september 13 - October 7 The ElevateAEC Conference & ElevateHer Symposium is a FREE four-week virtual experience with over 40 speakers and 30 credit hours of networking, learning, and celebrating – all in an unlimited virtual environment. With over 1900 registrants at the 2020 virtual conference, this event will once again connect and support a wide audience in the AEC industry, from emerging professionals to project managers to C-Suites, from all around the nation. https://virtual-elevate-aec-conference.heysummit.com/ Our three-day digital event, Building Together will offer insights into the most challenging and important issues for architects and engineers. Through a carefully curated program, the conference will showcase critical themes in the industry — from sustainability to the future of architecture — from integrated design to Building Lifecycle Intelligence. https://buildingtogether.graphisoft.com/ graphisoft building together digital event september 14-16 The International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) is a scientific/technical Association comprising members in 100 countries and counting 56 National Groups. The aim of the Association is to exchange knowledge and to advance the practice of structural engineering worldwide in the service of the profession and society. Founded in 1929, IABSE hosted a series of Congresses every four years from 1932 to 2016 and every year from 2019. https://iabse.org/ghent2021 IABSE Congress Ghent 2021 september 22-24 – ghent, belgium



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partnering to host the Business of Automated Mobility: Flight Path to UAM, November 2–3, 2021. This virtual event will equip attendees with the most current regulatory and operational updates about UAM. Topics facing industry and government leaders include vehicle development and production, vehicle management and operations, Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM), safety and security, as well as remote pilot technology and autonomy. https://bam-forum.org/home Zweig Group is thrilled to announce that the annual in-person ElevateAEC Awards Gala will return in 2021. Due to recent guidance from the CDC as well as loosening guidelines from the State of Colorado, the 2021 ElevateAEC Conference and Awards Gala is opening up registrations and restoring the full agenda for the annual in-person conference in Denver, November 3-5. This includes bringing back the iconic black-tie awards gala celebrating the 2021 winners of the Hot Firm list, Best Firms To Work For, Marketing Excellence, Rising Stars, Top New Ventures and the Jerry Allen Courage In Leadership Awards. https://www.zweiggroup.com/2021-inperson-elevate-aec-conf-gala/ december 2021 ElevateAEC Conference & Awards Gala november 3-5 –denver, co ENGINEER is the newest trade exhibition presented by C.I.S jointly organised with Malaysia’s official professional organisation for the engineering fraternity – The Institution of Engineers (IEM). This industry trade event is aimed towards providing engineering professionals in Malaysia and the region with an exciting and unique platform to gain an insight into cutting-edge solutions and advanced engineering technologies by international leading manufacturers. ENGINEER offers invaluable opportunities to network, collaborate and exchange ideas over the four-day event. https://engineermalaysia.com.my/ At Tech Leader Summit you'll learn about the latest technologies, hiring methodologies and organizational practices that can help earn a competitive advantage for both you and your organization. Tech Leader Summit is an educational event for Engineering Management and Technical Leaders. Presented to you by No Fluff Just Stuff. Topics Include: Software Engineering Management, Leadership, Talent Acquisition and Training, Agile Methods. https://techleadersummit.io/app/ticket/event/514 ENGINEER 2021 december 1-4 – malaysia TECHLEADER SUMMIT 2021 december 8-10 – Clearwater, fl

helitech expo october 5-6 – London, england

Helitech Expo is UK's largest Event dedicated to vertical products, parts, accessories and services. The show brings together leading manufacturers, suppliers, buyers and engineers to share their expertise in the Rotorcraft Industry. The event will empower you to reimagine the possibilities and get the edge in technological advancement, by connecting with the products, people and ideas that will transform your Rotorcraft Business. https://www.helitech.co.uk/ The UAS Summit & Expo started as a small gathering of regional stakeholders. The UAS Summit & Expo started as a small gathering of regional stakeholders. Now, 15 years later, the event in the Northern Plains of North Dakota has become a yearly major event for UAS experts from around the world. It’s the original epicenter of drone research, earned its place as the Silicon Valley of Drones and as you’ll see from the commercial, government and military flight activity filling the sky of the Northern Plains and beyond every day, it has truly become America’s UAS proving grounds. http://www.theuassummit.com/ema/DisplayPage.aspx?pageId=Home uas summit & expo october 13-14 – grand forks, nd DigiMarCon EMEA 2021 Digital Marketing, Media and Advertising Conference will take place October 20th to 21st, 2021, Online; Live and On Demand. It’s the one digital marketing event for marketing professionals in the EMEARegion (Europe, Middle East &Africa) you can’t afford to miss! Whether your goal is to reinforce customer loyalty, improve lead generation, increase sales, or drive stronger consumer engagement, DigiMarCon EMEA 2021’s agenda will help attendees enhance their marketing efforts. Sessions will focus on building traffic, expanding brand awareness, improving customer service and gaining insight into today’s latest digital tools. https://digimarconemea.com/ Cloud Architecture Summit features 6-10 vendors who will show how to make the cloud a core pillar of a modern end-to-end enterprise architecture. https://www.idevnews.com/registration?event_id=521 november 2021 DigiMarCon EMEA 2021 october 20-21 Cloud Architecture Summit october 21

business of automated mobility forum november 2-3

AUVSI and SAE have teamed up to host the Business of Automated Mobility Forum: Flight Path to UAM with a very clear purpose: helping companies that are building the future of mobility create an actionable roadmap to success. In support of this evolution, SAE and AUVSI are


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On July 20th, 2021, the ribbon was cut for the Grady E. Harvell Civil En - gineering Research & Education Center at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville. The event was heralded by speakers such as Dr. Micah Hale, Head of the University’s Civil Engineering Department, as well as the University’s Acting Chancellor Bill Kincaid and the building’s namesake, Grady Harvell, President of W&W/AFCO Steel, inc. There were several other notable speakers including the Dean of the College of Engineering Kim LaScola Needy, Ph.D. Student Elizabeth (Bette) Poblete, Former Arkansas State Representative Andy Davis, and NWA District Representative for the Office of Governor Asa Hutchinson, Stephanie Blevins. The new facility is certainly cause for celebration for the University of Arkansas Engineering Community. This $14 million dollar building is now a learning tool for the students and faculty of the University’s Engineering Departments, allowing them to conduct advanced testing of civil engineering infrastructure. According to Dr. Gary Prinz, director of the Harvell lab, this project is the result of discussions that began taking place over two decades ago. Starting in the late 1990s, senior members of the University of Arkansas Civil Engineering Department began discussing ways to elevate the program to the next level. One fruit of these discussions was the realization that, in order to both catch up with peer institu - tions and allow researchers at the University to push the cutting edge, there needed to be a new, large-scale testing facility. This need was addressed beginning eight years ago when meetings began regarding the funding and construction of a new facility. One of the driving forces behind this push for a new facility was Grady Harvell, President and CEO of W&W/AFCO Steel. Being a gradu - ate of the University’s Civil Engineering Bachelor’s program in 1972, Harvell provided a crucial estate gift commitment that allowed the project to reach their fundraising goal. Driven to improve the Uni - versity’s research capabilities, Harvell’s gift and efforts have provided students and researchers at the University with the means to conduct testing and research that will impact not only the state’s infrastructure, but the nation’s. Dr. Prinz calls this new facility a “game changer” for the students and re - searchers at the University. The new facilities allow students to receive hands-on experience testing and studying large structural components– visualizing how these components deform and break under extreme loads. This has serious implications for the way in which professors at New Facility Provides Opportunity for Students and Researchers at the University of Arkansas By Luke Carothers

the University teach their classes. For example, in a steel design class, students typically learn about several modes of failure such as block shear, bolt shear, or excessive bearing. The difference in experience between learning about these modes of failure in a classroom rather than



september 2021

different areas, working with bodies such as the US Army Corps of Engineers to develop more resilient concrete for VTOL aircraft. In ad - dition, the new facility is outfitted with a metallurgical lab that allows students and researchers to focus on steel as a structural element. In order to look at different specimens and how they perform under stress, the lab has a machine to subject them to both torsion and tension at the same time. This is especially crucial for researching how the materials and buildings will react to seismic forces. In the larger context of Civil Engineering education in the United States, the Grady E. Harvell Civil Engineering Research & Education Center puts the University of Arkansas on par with the top of the field. This means that the University is better able to compete for research projects that typically go to larger schools. In fact, Dr. Prinz believes that this new facility will be a catalyst for expanding the department’s reputation; he believes that the restrictions the department previously faced have fostered a sense of creativity and innovation in the way testing is done. Now that these restrictions have been removed, Dr. Prinz believes that this same sense of creativity and innovation will help the University be more competitive and solve the country’s infrastructure problems. According to Dr. Hale, the new facility is also instrumental in attracting undergraduate and graduate students as well as in retaining faculty. In terms of recruiting undergraduates to the Civil Engineering program, this new facility provides a space to bring in both high school students and undecided undergraduates and demonstrate what civil engineering is truly like. This same process can be used to attract undergraduates from different institutions who are considering a graduate program in Civil Engineering. The recruiting of both undergraduates and gradu - ates is bolstered by the inclusion of both collaborative space and stu - dent offices in the building. The new facility is also pivotal in retaining talented faculty and researchers. Dr. Hale believes that faculty was previously limited in terms of their testing equipment, which limited what faculty the program could retain. Now, with the lack of testing ability behind the department, Dr. Hale believes that the only thing that limits them is the scope of their creativity and innovation, making the Civil Engineering department at the University of Arkansas a much more attractive place for aspiring researchers.

testing them and feeling and seeing the physical effects of their failure is what the new facility provides. Dr. Prinz believes that this will give students a more complete understanding and education. This complete understanding and education is woven into the design of the building. The building’s floor is reinforced, but its design is flexible. The floor is roughly 38 inches of concrete with overlapping pieces of 1 inch steel rebar forming a mat. The laboratory floor is out - fitted with a grid pattern of four holes turned on a diagonal, resembling diamonds. Each of these holes is a tie-down with a threaded bolt. This means researchers and instructors can connect columns and various arrangements of test figures. The flooring system is capable of sup - porting a number of different structures and arrangements for testing. Each of the floor connections is capable of supporting 240,000 pounds of axial uplift resistance and 220,000 pounds of shear resistance–every four feet. Various components of this system are pre-stressed and con - nected through large threaded rods. The shear keys at the bottom of the system, which function much like lego pegs, allow for horizontal reactions up to 220,000 pounds. However, this fascinating system designed for testing large structures doesn’t stop its toy comparisons at legos. The pieces that are plugged into these lego-like holes also function similarly to the classic Erector Set. The columns that are inserted into the system of holes are also de - signed with unique intention. With holes every 4.75 inches, the system has a massive capacity to react against the floor. Overtop this flooring system sits a 25 ton overhead crane, which gives researchers even more flexibility in terms of the tests they can execute. The Grady E. Harvell Civil Engineering Research & Education Center is also equipped with several other features that improve the lives and work of students and researchers. One such feature is a state-of-the-art materials testing lab, which allows researchers to study and develop new ways to make concrete last longer and be more durable. Within the material testing lab, there are a series of environmental chambers that allow researchers to cure concrete at different temperatures and humidities. Combined with the advanced flooring system, this will give students a better understanding of what causes buildings to fail and allow researchers to develop cheaper, better concrete. Additionally, the concrete materials lab enables researchers to take on new projects in

LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at lcarothers@zweiggroup.com.


september 2021


Making Construction and Demolition Waste Work Towards a Sustainable Future By Luke Carothers

The waste-characterization study is crucial in that construction and de - molition waste on a military base typically differs from that produced during a commercial or residential project. This is due to not only a difference in building materials, but also to the speed and age in which these military installations were built. As such, the teams must identify what buildings are being taken down, what materials are in those build - ings, and how much of that material is being created. The next step is to take this information to the lab to determine the chemical properties of each of those waste streams. Using the tools and resources at their disposal, the teams will then determine what materials are suitable as a heat source for the kiln or use in the manufacturing process to reduce the use of raw materials such as limestone. The teams at LafargeHolcim, Geocycle, and the US Army Corps of Engineers’ ERDC will utilize many tools and resources to complete their research. The teams will have access to facilities such as Geo - cycle’s Holly Hill Research Center in South Carolina. Geocycle is an industry leader in co-processing and developing waste management solutions. The teams will utilize not only Geocycle’s processing and co-processing capabilities, but also their labs and expertise to develop a heat and fuel analysis. The teams will also have access to Holcim’s Global Innovation Center, located in Lyon, France. At the Global In - novation Center, the teams will have access to modeling capabilities that allow them to see what alternative raw materials can be used in the manufacturing of clinker. If this research and testing is successful, the teams at LafargeHolcim and Geocycle hope to continue working with the US Army Corps of Engineers to develop a large-scale pilot program based on the out - comes of this partnership. The success of this partnership has a strong potential to positively impact the overall re-use of construction and demolition waste in the United States. As military installations across the country continue to age and be replaced at an increasing rate, this research will be crucial in shaping construction and demolition proj - ects as we work towards a more sustainable future.

In 2018, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a report stating that nearly 600 million tons of construction and demolition waste was created in the United States, which is more than double the amount of municipal waste that was generated during the same time. Construction and demolition waste includes materials such as concrete, wood from buildings, asphalt from roads and roofs, gypsum from drywall, metal, bricks, glass, plastics, salvaged building compo - nents, trees, stumps, earth, rocks, etc. According to the same report from the EPA, 455 million tons of this construction and demolition waste was directed to next use, and 145 million tons of the waste was sent to landfills. The waste that was directed towards next use was primarily used as landfill, according to the report. One company leading the charge to find new ways to use construction and demolition waste is LafargeHolcim and their subsidiary, Geocycle, who are partnering with the US Army Corps of Engineers’ Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) to study how these materi - als can be used for energy recovery and mineral recycling. The goal is to demonstrate how construction and demolition waste may be used to create alternative fuels and alternative raw materials for the produc - tion of new, more sustainable construction materials. This agreement means that the US Army Corps of Engineers, LafargeHolcim, and Geocycle will be working cooperatively, sharing important informa - tion and working together to come up with solutions with a project cost of $3.4 million. The first step in the agreement is to complete a waste-characterization study, which means that the teams must first work together to identify a set of bases that have a potential number of construction projects or have enough construction and demolition waste already that would be suitable for the study. Once these bases have been identified, the teams at LafargeHolcim and Geocycle with work alongside with the ERDC to study this waste to understand the volumes as well as the chemistry of the waste streams in order to determine how to translate that chemis - try into either heat content for energy recovery or mineral recycling to create alternative raw material for the cement manufacturing process.

LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at lcarothers@zweiggroup.com.



september 2021

New developments can enhance public spaces and provide basic needs, such as housing and employment; however, we must consider the environmental effects of these developments in the design stage. As more impervious surfaces are introduced into the natural environment, concerns such as stormwater runoff and the heat-island effect have increasingly been ad- dressed through the adoption of green infrastructure and low-impact development practices. This can be ac- complished by integrating systems that reduce runoff and promote natural water infiltration within the ever- increasing built environment. Incorporating vegetated systems providesmyriadbenefits when it comes to meeting green infrastructure goals. Veg- etated systems not only offer a natural aesthetic but also promote critical stormwater infiltration. These systems are also much cooler than traditional asphalt or concrete surfaces, thus reducing the heat-island effect. While green space is desired, soil stabilization and erosion control solu- tions are often required for developments. The GEOWEB® 3D Soil Stabilization System (geocells) transforms infill throughconfinement, providingstrength and stabilization to cohesionless soils for applications including porous pavements, green retaining walls and slopes, stormwater channels, and tree root protection. The GEOWEB system minimizes environmental impact and offers cost-effective means for creating sustainable, long-term solutions. Porous Pavements Double as Load-Support Structure & On-Site Stormwater Management System The Clean Water Act stipulates the need for stormwater management, and most states have developed non- point pollution regulations with specific targets. Local governing bodies may require even more stringent stan- dards if the project is near a protected wetland or water source. Porous pavements help meet these regulations while performing to load-bearing requirements. In heavier traffic areas where permeability is desired, the GEOWEB® Porous Pavement System offers an economi- cal and environmentally friendly alternative to tradi- tional hard-paved surfaces. The systems perform double duty as a load support structure and an on-site water detention/retention storage basin, reducing or eliminat- ing long-term maintenance requirements and costs for Green Infrastructure & Low- Impact Development Solutions Using 3D Cellular Confinement

on-site stormwater systems. Fire lanes and occasional- use traffic areas can be built with topsoil/aggregate engineered infill for load-supporting grass pavements, and with GEOWEB reinforcement, the porous pavement system can be designed to accommodate heavy-weight emergency and maintenance vehicles with HS25 loading

and greater with minimal required base. Reduce Runoff with Swales & Vegetated Stormwater Channels

Grassed swales help collect runoff from parking lots by slowing and infiltrating the water while directing it to storm drains. Swales and drainage ditches are typically intended for low- to moderate-intermittent flows. The GEOWEB 3D system helps confine the topsoil while pro- moting vegetation to prevent failure through erosion. Testing performed at Colorado State University shows how the GEOWEB geocells function in channel and em- bankment applications. The results show that vegetated channels can be designed for higher flows when stabi- lized with the geocells technology and turf reinforce- ment mat (TRM). The GEOWEB channels can withstand up to 30 feet per second compared to five to six feet per second with erosion blankets. The GEOWEB vegetated channels can also be designed as tiered retaining wall structures. Intended for low- moderate, or intermittent higher flows during storm events, these channels can be designed with a narrow horizontal footprint to accommodate more volume to help mitigate flooding. Repair & Prevent Erosion with Green Slopes &Walls The GEOWEB® Slope Protection System is an economical solution to surface-stability problems on challenging slopes. The GEOWEB system stabilizes the upper soil lay- er to resist sliding, prevent recurring erosion caused by surface runoff and thereby allowing for the construction of steeper slopes at challenging or complex sites. The


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the GEOWEB System, infill, foundation and backfill soils, geogrid reinforcement, and desired safety factors. Presto also offers a SPECMaker® Tool where you can create a customized 3-part CSI-format specification for your proj- ect within minutes. Protect Tree Roots fromTraffic Damage When construction vehicles andequipment intrude upon a tree’s critical root zone, they negatively impact the soil environment through compaction and damage to near- surface roots—ultimately endangering the structural integrity of the tree. By distributing loading and limiting vertical stresses on the soil, the GEOWEB Tree Root Pro- tection (TRP) system protects the critical root zone from damage. The GEOWEB TRP system is especially beneficial in soft soil areas or where no-dig restrictions apply. The tree root protection system can be a temporary or per- manent solution. With a permeable topsoil/vegetation infill, the perforated GEOWEB cell walls offer environmental benefits, such as: • water infiltration • lateral movement of air and water • water and nutrient migration • promotion of root development Earn LEED® Green Building Credits by Creating Sus- tainable Environments Reducing a site’s overall environmental impact can help reach Green Infrastructure, Low-Impact Development, and green building goals when building in protected or densely populated areas. It can also help meet stormwa- ter regulations that limit the amount of hard surface area in your communities. Integrating the GEOWEB system into development projects may contribute to LEED® green rating credits. Credit categories include: • Reduced Site Disturbance: by creating permeable sur- faces and natural stormwater detention facilities • Stormwater Management: by using vegetated or per- meable surfaces that provide stormwater infiltration and reduce stormwater runoff • Heat Island Effect: Non-Roof: by creating a cooler sur- face with a vegetated or open-grid pavement system to minimize the impact on microclimate and human and wildlife habitat Design Support & Resources for Green Infrastructure Solutions The engineering team at Presto Geosystems works close- ly with civil engineers and landscape architects, offering free project evaluation services and on-site support for GEOWEB® 3D Soil Stabilization System solutions. Contact the Presto Geosystems team to request a free project evaluation or learn more about the GEOWEB® 3D system.

system also provides a means of fully vegetating sloped surfaces that otherwise could not support sustainable plant life. An embankment along a Maryland state highway was experiencing severe erosion caused by runoff from the impervious roadway. The Maryland State High Adminis- tration required a solution to stabilize the slope surface and prevent further degradation. The project engineers selected the GEOWEB Slope Protection System to hold the soil in place while allowing the water to run over the surface, preventing the formation of gullies. The veg- etated surface provided a deep root system to further stabilize the slope. Retaining walls built with the GEOWEB® system are an economical, green alternative to MSE wall systems—cre- ating a naturally vegetated living structure while meet- ing structural design requirements. The GEOWEB Retain- ing Walls can be designed in a variety of configurations to meet specific site requirements. Individual wall panels consist of an interconnected network of corrosion-resis- tant, HDPE-based geocells that are installed in a step-like configuration to create horizontal terraces. The exposed outer fascia cells create a natural environment for select vegetation and plantings. Indigenous vegetation or specified plantings may be incorporated for aesthetic appeal and sustainability as desired. Typical applications for GEOWEB Retaining Walls include the following: bioengineered walls, steepened embank- ments, dike and levee protection, culvert headwalls, veg- etated channel structures, change-in-grade landscape walls, resource protection barriers, and sound berms. Presto offers a free GEOWEB MSE design program, and you can create vegetated and non-vegetated MSE designs for reinforced slopes, as well as gravity and geogrid-reinforced walls. The software is based on industry-standard design methods and contains specific algorithms that capture the unique interaction between



september 2021

Fit to Fly: New Air Force Fitness Center By JoAnne Castagna, Ed.D.

Col. Christopher Witter, mission support group commander, 914th Air Refueling Wing, Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station in Upstate New York said, “You need to be mentally and physically fit to do the mission we do every day.” He said this two years ago, during a groundbreaking ceremony for a new fitness center at the Reserve Station. This year, the center is being completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New York District. The new center will help keepAirman in top physical and mental shape so they can continue to fulfil their important mission for the nation. The Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station is a U.S. Air Force Reserve Command military installation located near the Canada-New York State border. Presently, there are over 1,700 personnel assigned to the station that include Active Guard Reserve, Active Reserve Technician, Traditional Reserve, DoD Civilian, and contracted 914th Air Refueling Wing personnel. Second Lt. Lucas Morrow, 914th ARW public affairs officer said, “All Airmen have the core mission, which is to train, perfect and provide full- spectrum rapid global mobility to the joint force, whenever, wherever.” Michael W. Williams, 914th ARW Sustainment Chief said, “The new fitness facility is state of the art and incorporates all the latest in the fit - ness world. The direction of fitness in the military today is Functional Strength Training. Our new center will be the first fitness center in the Air Force Reserve Command to have an area totally dedicated to this training. This facility will allow our Airmen to be ready to perform their mission whenever called upon.” Williams has been working on getting a new gym built at the Reserve Station for 25 years, so this is a huge achievement for him. The station has a physical fitness center that was built in the 1950s that is undersized and in poor condition. Jeremy Pagoada, Project Engi - neer, New York District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers said, “There are significant deficiencies with the facility due to the aging and inef - ficient construction materials used, maintenance costs, and utility costs that will continue to be high and worsen with time.” This old facility is being replaced with a modern one that will meet the physical and mental needs of today’s Airmen. The new fitness center will be approximately 22,000 square feet in size and the one-story building will be 40 feet tall and will accommodate approximately 250 persons daily. The center will be open all day, every day and will have a large asphalt parking lot to accommodate the times of the year when there is more

Airman at the station, such as during training weekends. The new fitness center will include a lobby, administration area, locker room and showers, and a fully trained staff that will help the military personnel meet their fitness needs. Pagoada said, “The new fitness center will have an open concept that will allow plenty of space for strength and cardio fitness, group classes, a Functional Strength Training Room, and fitness equipment, including weight machines, free weights, dumbbells, cages and racks.” There will be plenty of space for basketball, racquetball, and vol - leyball courts. He added that there also will be greater flexibility for future reconfigu - ration. For example, the basketball court will have 6 retractable basket - ball goals and additional court lines that will allow the main court to be divided into two smaller courts and a retractable divider curtain will be planned for between the two smaller basketball courts. New York District Commander, Mathew Luzzatto and project team look at the progress being made on the new fitness center at the Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station. Photo: James D’Ambrosio, Public Affairs.


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