The Alleynian 702 2014




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‘It Matters to Me…’ Matt Lobo, Tohid Ismail, Khalil Glba

Success that Speaks for Itself: Debating at Dulwich Raffy Marshall, Arnav Kapur and Kenza Wilks Going Beyond: Dulwich Diploma essays A selection of Extended Essays The Upper School Symposium 2013: Society and the Individual Will Cook Year 10 Free Learning Day Kit George and Max Faulkner Wondrous to Behold: Early Science Books in the College Archives Mr Robert Weaver On Interviewing Sir Ranulph Fiennes Michael Godson

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At Home at Dulwich – Perspectives on Boarding Jinwook Jung, Oskar Kocol, Andreas Candido IFS Student Investor Challenge Mrs Amy Meachen Young Enterprise Chris Sealey and Anamay Viswanathan The Union Mr Harrison Pearce and George Austin

Dulwich College and the Wings of Hope Children’s Charity Mitchell Simmonds, George Kingsley-Moore, James Blakemore, Louis Wright, Jim Bannister, Felipe Bunge and Jack Ramsay Chaplaincy Reverend Stephen Padfield Memories of DUCKS Mrs Ann-Christine Andersen Positive Space: the Upper School Exhibition - Mr Richard Sutton A Visit to Frieze - Will Reid The Creative Process - Will Reid Dulwich College Art 2013-14 ART

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“Beginners please!” Behind the Scenes – Mrs Kathryn Norton-Smith and Will Reid Reconfigured: Experiences of Immersive Theatre – Ollie Norton-Smith New Views Project – Shehzore Adil Amadeus – Dr John Carnelley A Midsummer Night’s Dream – Miss Helen Adie Dorian Gray – Miss Jo Akrill Animal Farm – Ms Maggie Jarman Der Sandmann – Mr Ed Swift Messiah and Vernon God Little – Miss Anna Simpson Upper School House Drama – Mr Peter Jolly Middle School House Drama – Ms Jenny Worton

Lower School House Drama – Mr Carl Gilbey-McKenzie A Nod to Ned – Founder’s Day Faustus – Mr Alastair Trevill



Cadogan Hall – Alexander Joe Southwark Cathedral – Will Horseman St John’s Smith Square – James Orford

Junior School Concert – Mr Alex Matthews 50th Lunchtime Concert – Ho Ting Chan Performing in Lunchtime Concerts – William Haddock Visit of Toby Spence – Ed Edwards Piano Competition – Mr Timothy Barratt Visual to Vocal Project – Joseph Giles House Music Competition – Mr Richard Mayo



The Weizmann Safecracking Competition – Mr Andrew Wheble Biology Week – Dr Phil Cue Epigenetics Workshop at Guy’s Hospital – Joshua Kader



Middle School House Poetry – Shehzore Adil, Matthew Downie, Sam Warren- Miell, Joel Aikins, Thomas Whittaker



2013-14 Report – Miss Sarah Wood ‘An Unforgettable Trip’ – Highlights by Ben Higlett, Henry Williams, Gwilym Seaton, Jack Foulds, Matthew Beese, Ben Stevenson, Lorcan Tierney, Rupert Shearer Duke of Edinburgh Award – Mr Toby McPhilemy, Micah Roberts and Gidon Gautel Prague – Mrs Ellie Crawford Rome – Mr Jon Fox and Sam Cohen



Arctic Survival Challenge – George Porter and Jamie Scott Junior Leaders Course – Zack Faja RAF National Ground Training Competition – Zack Faja



2013-14 Report – Mr Phil Greenaway Rugby Final Report – Mr Sam Howard Rowing: Amsterdam training camp – Will Thomas OA Sailing Week – Theo Forbes National Schools Sailing Championships – James Redshaw and Charlie Dee Barcelona U15 Football Tour – Mr Arthur Brammer

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News from Dulwich International Chris Parsons OA News Mr Guy Lawrenson A Scholar and a Forger: JP Collier Dr Jan Piggott Valete

Afterword Dr Joseph Spence

One of the many things that can be so wrong about assemblies in schools is that the pupils get used to being talked at by teachers and guest speakers in a way that suggests that these experts are all knowing and that the pupils are empty vessels to be filled. One important innovation that we have introduced recently at Dulwich ensures that boys have a number of opportunities to hear from their peers in assembly. Sometimes a boy will be commissioned to talk about a cause that is important to the school as a whole, but more often they’ll talk about something very personal. These assemblies entitled It Matters to Me have been particularly successful and widely appreciated. Three examples of the form follow here.

I f you reflected on the past week, you probably would have heard someone describe something pejoratively as ‘so gay’ despite the fact it is neither homosexual nor happy. This piece stems from an assembly I was lucky enough to present to the Middle and Upper Schools. The issue was raised by the LGBT charity, Stonewall, and the aim of their campaign was to eradicate homophobic language from Britain’s school playgrounds. It should be noted that in this statement, there is no mention of tackling homophobic harassment or prejudice towards homosexuality. The aim is to simply adopt a sense of mutual respect between all young people, regardless of sexual orientation. Similarly, my aim is not to lecture people on the horrors of homophobic bullying, because as a College, we experience very little of that and it doesn’t seem relevant. But what I think is an important issue that should be a topic of open discussion is using language in a way that is not suitable for the message that you are trying to portray and the negative effect that it can have. It is important to understand that using ‘gay’ pejoratively or unsuitably is homophobic: it uses ‘gay’ as a substitute to describe something stupid or dumb or, even worse, as a term of abuse. A crude example may be drawn to people saying ‘that’s so black’ to which our reaction would, quite rightly, be that of horror and shock. It is difficult to hear, but it is immediately clear to us that this is not the kind of language that should be tolerated in our society. This is the same reaction that I have when I hear someone use the phrase ‘that’s so gay’. Some people, upon reading this, will, quite correctly, say that our society is very tolerant and extremely welcoming to those of differing sexual orientation. London Gay Pride is one of the largest



Matt Lobo (Year 13)


events of its kind in the world, attracting hundreds of people, both homosexual and heterosexual. Within the microcosm of Dulwich College, our community is similarly described as vibrant, welcoming and tolerant. I would be the first person to note that you would be hard-pressed to find another school that had a tradition of an Annual Muslim vs. Hindu Hand of Friendship Football Match. However, it is important to note the distinction between tolerance and acceptance. A closer look at the definitions of these two words provides an insight into the way we view and respond to the concept of homosexuality. Tolerance is ‘to put up with, the capacity to endure continued subjection to something’. When that ‘something’ is homosexuality, the idea sounds very wrong and is not something that should be aspired for. Acceptance, however, is ‘to regard as proper/normal/inevitable, or to recognise as true’. The distinction is made clear when it comes to legislation: tolerance can be written into the school rules and be made part of the law of the land, and indeed it has been. Tolerance can therefore be enforced. However, acceptance, or persuading people to regard homosexuality as purely natural and normal, is something that requires a societal shift. It is my hope that society is able to keep moving forward in the positive way it is. I say this because, whilst gay rights are at an all time high, with the media singing the praises of all those who pushed for gay marriage, the culture remains the same. In a twelve-hour period, the phrases ‘fag’, ‘dyke’ and ‘so gay’ are each used over 1,100 times on Twitter. In a week, these figures surpass one million. Similarly, what does it say about our culture that we would be more comfortable seeing a man holding a gun than holding another man’s

“...tolerance can be written into the school rules and be made part of the law of the land, and indeed it has been. Tolerance can therefore be enforced. However, acceptance, or persuading people to regard homosexuality as purely natural and normal, is something that requires a societal shift.”


hand? Let us consider how many movies have been made that are 50 per cent cold-blooded, mindless violence, compared with the number of movies where the protagonists are homosexual. And, before you say it, yes, Brokeback Mountain won three Oscars and the world was a better place for it. So, when is it appropriate to use the word ‘gay’? The answer is, to describe a person who is openly homosexual or a when describing something normally associated with homosexuality. Ellen Degeneres, Gareth Thomas, Jim Parsons, Clare Balding, Gay Pride or a gay bar are all things that are justifiably eligible to be described as ‘gay’. ‘Gay’ should not be used to describe something that you would view to be annoying or bad or negative, such as a piece of homework you didn’t want to do, or a comment that someone has made. In these cases, a suitable alternative should be employed, like ‘silly’ or (my personal favourite) ‘asinine’. The crux of what I am trying to say is that most of the time, ‘gay’ is not meant in a derogatory way and generally does not come from hate or bigotry, but mainly from laziness. ‘Gay’ is a really easy word to throw out, but it is not applicable most of the time and not the message you are really trying to convey. Nonetheless, it still has its consequences. For a person coming to terms with their sexuality, whether they are gay, bisexual, transgender or

merely questioning, for them to live in a society where ‘gay’ is used as a term to describe something inferior or negative, sends out the message that they are not welcome in this community if they come out as gay and this can cause young gay people to feel isolated in their community. It is very easy for me to say ‘Homophobia is bad. Do something about it!’ I recognise that this isn’t easy, particularly in a boys school, where banter is such an integral part of how we communicate with our friends. I wanted to talk in an assembly because I myself didn’t know what to say when I heard people use this kind of language. Depending on the situation, a good thing to do is to give a gentle reminder that that kind of language is not acceptable. A simple ‘that’s homophobic, don’t you think’ or even a roll of the eyes is enough to convey the right message. It’s about doing what you can – no more, but certainly no less. Remember that silence is consent and individual condemnation of homophobic language is another step in the right direction. Cultural change is a matter of baby steps: I do not expect never to hear the word ‘gay’ being used incorrectly again, but what I hope is that when I do hear that kind of language, it is quickly followed by a gentle reminder that that isn’t okay.


“As in a Capitalist system, in Islam, too, there is a social contract between the rich and the poor...”


In Islam, as in Capitalism, enterprise is actively encouraged and anyone can become wealthy if they’re willing to work hard. I consider myself a Capitalist, not only because I have seen the success of it in modern Britain, but also because I believe, in the words of Ayn Rand, that it ‘frees people to act in their rational self-interest.’ This means acting in the way that is most personally beneficial, to an extent. However, coming back to my Islamic beliefs and my sense of morality as a whole, this should not, and indeed does not, mean that we should disregard the poor. As in a Capitalist system, in Islam, too, there is a social contract between the rich and the poor, whereby the political and economic systems (for example, via charity, one of the five pillars of Islam) assist the very poor and through social mobility they, too, can benefit from the fruits of an enterprise-led, Capitalist system. It should be our aim to make the social ladder easier to climb, and the welfare system that we have in place in our country today, ensures this. But what about those at the bottom of the social ladder? Those that often, and on some occasions rightly so, make Capitalists such as bankers the subject of intense ridicule, calling them things like ‘fat cats’? Yes, laissez faire economics, that I personally believe work, may result in many people feeling they have been forgotten by the state, and all should be done to aid these individuals; but, in the end, free markets promote freedom and democracy and are fundamental in this democratic state. Although I am sure not everyone agrees with this statement, Capitalism has proved successful in all corners of the world as a means of wealth creation, triumphing over Communism, and we as a nation have shown that it is possible to be both a Capitalist country, where everyone has the chance of financial success, and a country that cares for those who aren’t so fortunate. I hope I have capitalised on this opportunity, if you pardon the pun, and, in economics terms, have supplied what you demanded.



W hat is the dictionary definition of industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state. Although the stereotypical Islamic view is not a Capitalist one, Capitalism is, in my eyes, the gateway to success; so I’d like to comment on this economic system, not only from the viewpoint of a Capitalist but also from the viewpoint of a follower of a religion, Islam, in which greed is condemned and helping the poor is a must. As a Muslim, I try my best to follow the rules of my religion, which in my eyes and the eyes of most Muslims – but not all – is a peaceful one. These rules, much like the values of this College, encourage me to be kind to others and help those who require help. I think that the Capitalist system of this country is and rightly should be the envy of all nations. It is a country where healthcare is free, where education is considered a birthright and, more relevantly, one where all have an opportunity to become wealthy. When asked to speak on something that interested him, Tohid Ismail of Year 11 chose to unite two seeming opposites. Capitalism? It is an economic and political system in which a country’s trade and


Sankoh, the leader and founder of the RUF, was responsible for initiating the blood diamond issue where basic human rights were completely violated. Still healing from a horrific civil war marked by the struggle for control of the diamond mines, the casualties are still in abundance and form the image that most westerners picture when the two words of my nation are named. Tens of thousands were brutally murdered and millions were displaced or sought refuge in bordering countries. Poverty has become a customary way of living and families line the road-side with nothing to feed their brittle-boned children. This is the product of this guerilla war. Although the country is bursting with orphan children with rust-coloured hair, old women dragging skeletal legs behind their blown empty bellies and amputees struggling with broken wheelchairs, there is still a great sense of hospitality from the second you enter the country. Freetown, being the capital city, has a vibe like no other; it is filled with personalities and everyone is eager to befriend the stranger. One memory that will always be with me is my visit to Lunsar for the anniversary of my grandmother’s funeral, even though sorrow, grief and woe hung heavy in the air, my mother and aunts still found time to feed the 14 orphans my grandma had found homeless just after the civil war. This truly shocked me as I saw grown men in tears yet they found time to feed unrelated children, despite the personal sacrifice. This gave me an immense sense of pride in my country; it shows that through all the misfortune, corruption and hurt Sierra Leone has hope. Sierra Leone is now faced with a generation of young people who have lost their families, history and identity – their stories. You may have seen the documentaries and read the articles but you don’t feel the pain, sorrow and shame that a Sierra Leonean national does. Recruitment of child soldiers and the displacement of more than half of the country’s population were too big a loss from which to recover quickly, but I look to the future with confidence. “Sierra Leone is now faced with a generation of young people who have lost their families, history and identity – their stories.”




S ituated on the West African coast, Sierra Leone is a small country with a population of six million. Like many African countries it is a land rich with resources, which has been exploited by foreign corporations from colonial times. During the 1980s survival became even more difficult for Sierra Leoneans. The collapse of the state was the consequence of the three decades, just before the rebellion, of mass corruption and mismanagement. The government slowly turned Sierra Leone into a capitalist state but without the organization and infrastructure to survive in a capitalist way. The hope of making a change though democratic means was quickly lost and a rebellious group called the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was formed, creating an alliance with the Sierra Leonean army in an attempt to gain control of an already broken country. This coalition fought for just over a decade to take back control of the country’s riches. Foday Khalil Gbla of Year 10 was invited by the Master to reflect on his visits to his homeland. He will develop his ideas further in an assembly presentation for his peers.


Success That Speaks For Itself

Debating at Dulwich is at an all-time high, with speakers triumphing at national and international level. What is the secret of our success? Raffy Marshall (Year 12) and Arnav Kapur (Year 13) report on Dulwich’s powerhouse of polemic. I f you are a regular visitor to MyDulwich or the College website, you cannot have failed to notice that Dulwich debaters have gone from recently, as part of ‘Team England’, Louis and Will beat Australia in The Old Parkland Debates 2014 competition, held in Dallas, Texas. Their outstanding performance when proposing the motion ‘This house believes that, when in conflict, global human rights trump national sovereignty’ saw them unanimously declared the winners. Sayeqa Islam, the Dulwich team’s coach, has good strength to strength this year. Indeed, their success has been quite extraordinary, with victory in no less than seven national finals, including the most prestigious UK Debating Competitions. Louis Collier and Will Cook (both Year 13) won the Oxford and Cambridge Schools’ tournaments (with over 700 teams competing from around the world), while Raffy Marshall and Ronan Patrick (both Year 12) won the Durham Schools’ Debating Competition and the England Mace Final. Most reason to be proud: ‘We make up half of the England national team; we have won more competitions than most other schools combined; and we continue to have up and comers from a young age,’ she notes. ‘The difference at Dulwich is we


have depth in our Society. It’s not just one member being successful. It’s a number of students from a range of different backgrounds learning debating and realising that they can be good at it.’ Sayeqa is no stranger to success herself: a world-renowned coach, she has trained both the New Zealand and Indian National Teams. Her own illustrious debating career saw her named as the Best Speaker at the Australasian Debating Championships. Dulwich debating in its most recent form began in 2000 when Dr Farrow, an English Teacher, took it upon himself to offer the activity to students at the college. Since then it has grown substantially and gained a dedicated coach, Sayeqa, and more than 20 active debaters. Meetings take place twice a week and focus on training. These sessions usually begin with a talk on a relevant topic such as ‘The Ukraine Crisis’ and progress to a debating exercise like ‘rebuttal tennis’ (where we take turns rebutting each other’s arguments) and culminate in a fully-fledged debate. Tom O’Reilly, who left Dulwich in 2008 to study at Oxford, but who was an active member of the debating society, is sure that the rigour instilled by these meetings has made the teams as good as they are. ‘Debating doesn’t happen magically. Standing up and speaking in front of your peers on an unfamiliar subject can be a little overwhelming, but training rapidly increases your eloquence and confidence.’ With this level of success over the past two years, we wondered if Dulwich had any room to improve or whether we were in fact witnessing the Golden Era of Dulwich debating. Sayeqa is emphatic: ‘NO! I have great hopes for the future of Dulwich debating. Every single week I see Year 9s and Year 10s turn up for four hours of debating sessions. Beyond these, they watch debating videos at home and often send me things they have read and feel could be applicable to debating. To see them working as hard as the Year 12s and Year 13s, most of whom will compete at international level, gives me complete faith that this is the very beginning of what Dulwich can achieve. We have only touched the surface.’ Most of these debaters would tell you that the increased confidence from debating has improved and transformed their lives in many ways. Debating offers students something unique: the opportunity to speak and argue in front of an audience on a weekly basis. For some, this may seem more daunting than rewarding and Sayeqa says that for most debaters ‘it

seems terrifying but it can also be exciting.’ She said she thrived on the challenge. After all, as Tom says, ‘it takes enormous courage to stand in front of your peers or complete strangers and deliver a speech, which was something I had never done before.’ Another aspect of debating that benefits students is the intensity of preparation. Before every debate you are given a motion – often one you have never considered before, such as ‘This House would place quotas for racial minorities in national sports teams’ – and 15 minutes to prepare for a five- minute speech. This might seem easy enough; but in this brief time period, which includes getting to the debating room, you need to think about a lot more than you would expect. Let’s say you were in favour of this motion – putting in place racial quotas. What level of quota would you choose? A fixed proportion corresponding to population, or one above the proportion to promote minorities? What would you deem as a minority and how would you implement the quotas? What would be your main arguments? What would you expect from your opposition? The questions continue and by this point your time might already be over. So debating forces you to think of arguments on your feet, ensuring you structure your ideas and arguments quickly. As a result of this, debaters think succinctly, argue well and speak eloquently. In an interview setting,

“Debating offers students something unique: the opportunity to speak and argue in front of an audience on a weekly basis.”

where you will be challenged with a range of tough questions, the benefits are huge. In terms of university applications, Sayeqa notes that ‘we have had a very strong correlation between students who have experienced Dulwich’s debating programme and students who achieve places in the top universities of the UK’. In fact, the success rate of Dulwich debaters who have applied to Oxbridge over the past six years has been 100 per cent, in subjects ranging from Computer Science and Biology to Music and PPE. Tom goes so far as to say, ‘I don’t think I’d have got into Oxford without debating. I don’t think I would have had the confidence to apply, nor the academic rigour to pass once I got there.’ Among the current generation, Louis Collier will be studying Physics at Oxford and Will Cook PPE, also at Oxford.


Debating also has a social aspect. Sam Collier, another Dulwich debater who went on to study at Oxford in 2012 – and was a member of the England Debating Team, going on to rank as the second- best speaker in the world at the World School’s Debating Championship – reflects ‘you get along with everyone because you all have a common interest,’ and debating has left him with ‘many great debating friends who I still keep in contact with.’ Beyond meeting interesting people, debaters argue about interesting topics like ‘This house would make Holocaust denial illegal’ or ‘This house would invade Syria’. For many students, this has created an interest in a particular area and for Sayeqa ‘it has had a very direct impact on the causes I am passionate about and areas that I was not exposed to prior to debating. These are areas that I have gone on to focus on in my work.’ Another benefit of debating, if you get into the national team, is overseas travel. The England

What is debating? Considered by some to be a spor t, debating is best characterised as a game that allows par ticipants to play with ideas, ideologies and systems. In each debate there are four teams, each composed of two people, with two teams arguing in favour of the motion and two against.You are given a motion like ‘This house would aggressively stream students according to their academic ability from an early age’, randomly allocated to a side of the debate and given 15 minutes to prepare a five-minute speech. In order to win the debate your team must have addressed the key issues and demonstrated that, by the end of the competition, your arguments still held (i.e. had not been effectively countered) and were the strongest and most compelling on offer. To win a debate, you must therefore be effective at substance (i.e. is the information we’re conveying the most per tinent?) and style (i.e. have we argued our material in an interesting and persuasive manner?). World School’s Debating Team annually travels to the World School’s Debating Championship and for Sam ‘the World Schools’ in South Africa was probably the best experience of my life – there is nothing quite like it.’ This year Louis and Will, two of four members of the England World Schools’ Debating Team, will be heading to Thailand; whilst last year Will went to Turkey with the Team as well. As if that isn’t enough of an incentive to become involved, Sayeqa has a final claim about the appeal of debating: ‘It’s absolutely open to anyone. If you are someone who is hesitant and thinks maybe debating is not for me, my only advice would be come and see what it is about. I am directly talking to the shy kid: please come to debating and I think you will be pleasantly surprised how accessible debating is to all types of characters and backgrounds.’


Kenza Wilks , a Year 10 debater at Dulwich, offers a personal perspective

on what being involved in this most demanding of intellectual activities has meant for him.

S ome at Dulwich might be tempted to brand the debating society as a place where argumentative boys gather to shout witty remarks at each other. However, debating is far more profound than that – or at least it is the majority of the time. The French writer Joseph Joubert said, ‘it is better to debate a question without settling it than to settle a question without debating it’, and this captures the spirit of what we do. Debating is, above all, a way in which an individual or a team can discuss current issues facing our world today and come to profound and well thought-out conclusions as to how to solve that specific problem. It creates a forum in which you can decide on possible solutions. My experiences of debating started in Year 9 and since joining I have attended many competitions with varying levels of success. In preparation for these, we hold debating practices twice a week in which we work on both the way arguments should be structured and the technical aspects of debating. We then put these into practice in debates on a wide variety of topics. The plethora of topics that we can debate means that we have to gain a wide range of knowledge in order to be relevant or, alternatively, pretend to be so. The progression and improvement as a debater is rapid, not only with the great coaching that we receive, but also the influences of older boys in the society, particularly Louis Collier and Will Cook, who have experience at an international level. I have learnt a lot from watching them debate, and have adopted aspects of their style and tactics in order to improve my own. The competitions that we attend range in quality, with debaters of all calibres eligible to compete for four rounds of debating. In the final round, only four teams compete and this is a great opportunity to learn more skills from other debaters or from the judges of the competition. In addition to this, the many lectures and workshops that we

can attend increase our ability as a school to compete at the highest level in debating. Debating works to develop a number of skills that are helpful not only for debating itself but also for a number of other endeavours that one may choose to pursue. The ability to structure an argument and generate a number of different reasons as to why that argument may be true, particularly in a limited space of time, is exceedingly useful when it comes to writing essays in English or other Humanities subjects. By its very nature, debating requires you to stand in front of a group of people and be able to speak eloquently and compellingly, which is a good skill to have when looking into possible careers that involve public speaking. This is a skill I have been able to develop through debating at the school and hope to put to good use. Finally, knowledge of, or at least an understanding of, current affairs and other issues is intrinsic in debating. You acquire interesting information that you would be unlikely to have otherwise and can apply to other academic areas or general topical discussion. Debating as a whole is a great co-curricular activity in that it allows for conversation about current affairs, produces many transferable skills and, as a result, I am pleased to be a part of it.


Each year, every member of Year 12 completes a 2,500 word research essay on a subject of his choice over the summer holiday for the Dulwich Diploma. As part of this process, which includes guidance on questions of academic integrity and research techniques, an abstract must be produced outlining the content, arguments and conclusions of the finished essay. A selection of these is published here and demonstrates the vast scope of Dulwich boys’ academic interests, one that ranges far beyond the A-level curriculum. GOING BEYOND: DULWICH DIPLOMA ESSAYS

“...democracy is flawed, as it neither protects the rights and freedoms of the individual nor maximises utility.” WHY DID BRITAIN NOT FOLLOW FRANCE’S REVOLUTIONARY PATH IN THE LATE 18TH AND EARLY 19TH CENTURIES? WILLIAM BEDDOWS In this essay I look at how the governing classes in Britain managed to retain Britain’s traditional society and prevent the revolutionary tide that engulfed France in 1789 from doing the same to Britain. I argue that the skill of British politicians at the time played a crucial role in ensuring financial stability and the preservation of social order. But also I argue that because Britain was, unlike France, a constitutional monarchy, it meant that the governance of the country was carried out by professional politicians. This prevented the King from being made the scapegoat for any political or financial disaster, as Louis XVI had been in 1789. I conclude that as Britain’s constitution was more flexible than that of France, those wanting expansion of civil liberties, such as an increase in the voting franchise, aimed to work within the system as reformists rather than revolutionaries. and against the Aerotropolis model. For example, an Aerotropolis provides tourists and business people maximum efficiency for global travel but might not provide sufficient space for the need to rapidly expand airports. My conclusion was that Aerotropoli are most suited to new city developments in countries with authoritarian regimes.


TO WHAT EXTENT IS THE AEROTROPOLIS MODEL SUITABLE FOR THE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF CITIES? JOSH BARRICK to conclude that by both premises democracy is flawed, as it neither protects the rights and freedoms of the individual nor maximises utility. An Aerotropolis is a relatively new model where a city is built up around an airport, similar to traditional port cities. As a keen geographer, I was interested to explore whether this concept could resolve the conflict between the rise in air travel and the need for a more sustainable world. My research included an interview with Professor John Kasarda, the original architect of the Aerotropolis idea. As a result, I found numerous arguments for This essay proposes a number of criticisms of democracy. Firstly, I examine the two main arguments of social contract theory, tacit and hypothetical consent, and then contrast them with utilitarian modes of justification for our state. I then explore the ‘state of nature’ proposed by Thomas Hobbes and, using my understanding of human nature, conclude that the state serves a utilitarian purpose. I then present utilitarian criticisms of democracy, making use of basic game theory in my example from Ancient Athens. Finally, I address democracy from the premise that the state’s purpose is not utilitarian, but rather, as proposed by John Rawls, to protect individual rights. Finally I make use of John Stuart Mills’ theory of the ‘Tyranny of the Majority’ and my own personal argument


WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF GANG CULTURE IN SOUTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES REGARDING THEIR ECONOMY AND ITS PROGRESSION? LUKE CONNOR This piece looks into the effects of the gang culture in Latin American countries and, specifically, at the economy and progression of El Salvador over the last 30 to 40 years. It explores the history behind the gangs and the impact of this growth in recent years on the individuals and the economy as a whole. As my grandfather was the Ambassador for Great Britain in El Salvador during the Civil War, he was a very valuable source of information. I also used the World Bank report for information on the finances of the country and the companies operating in El Salvador. I believe that, in the long run, the gangs’ effect on the economy has been as negative as positive, as the revenue brought in from illegal dealings that fed into the economy via the multiplier effect has aided in equalling out the negative effects of this process. making portable ultrasound services available to a wider population. Small-scale studies have shown that the introduction of ultrasound in the developing world will have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality rates by improving diagnostics and therefore patient management. However, long-term studies have not yet been performed and will be needed in the future to see how this service can be sustained and developed. HOW BENEFICIAL WILL PORTABLE ULTRASOUND BECOME IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD? MATTHEW BEESE Ultrasound has revolutionised modern medicine in the Western world. Nevertheless, it is generally accepted that in rural and resource-limited areas of middle and low-income countries that diagnostic imaging is almost always insufficient and in some cases completely lacking. However, due to increased affordability, portability and availability of ultrasound units, portable ultrasound is helping to improve the diagnostic capacity of hospitals in the developing world. Moreover, a more user- friendly design has allowed non-radiologists to be trained by taking a short and intensive course,

HOW ARE BRIDGES PROTECTED FROM EARTHQUAKES AND CAN THERE EVER BE AN EARTHQUAKE-PROOF BRIDGE? TEDDY CUNNINGHAM As the world’s population continues to increase and the need for nations and regions to be physically connected grows ever more important, bridges are being built in some of the most extreme and, arguably, unwise locations. Some of these bridges need to be built to withstand Nature’s greatest force – the earthquake. Many questions arise from this requirement: what earthquake protection measures are already in place in bridges built within the last 30 years? What additional measures are being explored so that bridges of the future are protected more from the dangers of an earthquake? Finally, can there ever be an ‘earthquake-proof ’ bridge? Through the examination of bridges, both those under construction and those fully operational, looking across three continents and at the ways bridges of the future are being engineered, I look to address those three questions. need for nations and regions to be physically connected grows ever more important, bridges are being built in some of the most extreme and, arguably, unwise locations.” “As the world’s population continues to increase and the


CAN COLLECTIVE WORSHIP BE JUSTIFIED IN SCHOOLS? TOMMY CURRAN JONES This essay examines the legislature around mandatory collective worship in state-run schools and the relevance of such worship. Current legislation demands that worship be broadly of a Christian nature and this essay looks at whether this is still reasonable in 21st-century Britain. The essay also considers the impact of compulsory worship on pupils and teachers. The data collected from various reports shows a widely negative attitude towards the current policy regarding school worship, with it being considered likely to cause offence to religious groups. My conclusion, shared by many teachers, is that while there should be collective assemblies for all students, these should be secular in nature. Although religion was once the uniting factor for students in schools, this is no longer the case and so the legislation needs to be amended accordingly. BACH’S USE OF ALTERATIONS TO RITORNELLO AND FORTSPINNUNGIN THE ALLEGRO OF ‘BRANDENBURG CONCERTO NO. 5’ ED EDWARDS It is certainly true that Bach had an unparalleled mastery of the technicalities of music; a uniquely mathematical perspective on the shape and movement of his melodies. This has led some people to call into question the emotional value in Bach’s works. This essay looks at what Bach did to extend the duration of his pieces in order to increase the quality of his worship of God, to whom all his music was dedicated. Since an analysis of Bach’s oeuvre would need considerably more work than a single essay, I have focused my points on the first movement (the Allegro) of ‘Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, BWV 1050’, as it is, even more conspicuously than others, an example of Bach’s unconventional compositional methods.

IS THE GREAT GATSBY UNADAPTABLE? THOMAS HAMMOND Several attempts have been made over the years to adapt Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby into a successful film. None, however, have yet been considered to reach the levels of greatness of the original novel. This essay will explore perhaps the two most notable attempts to adapt the novel (by Jack Clayton in 1974 and Baz Luhrmann in 2013), analysing what both directors have failed to capture from the original text, focusing specifically on their directorial style, and examining how they have each tackled key scenes from the novel. The essay will also question whether it is indeed possible to deliver an adaptation of the novel which lives up to the high expectations of critics and the populace alike.

“...Bach had an unparalleled mastery of the technicalities of music; a uniquely mathematical perspective on the shape and movement of his melodies.”

A CLOCKWORK UNIVERSE: ARE ALL ACTIONS AND OCCURRENCES PRE- DETERMINED BY THE LAWS OF PHYSICS? MARCO IOVINO Does the current state of the universe combined with the laws of mechanics uniquely determine the future state of the universe as if it were clockwork? In this essay, I attempt to understand what makes the universe tick by exploring physical theories that propose that the universe is either deterministic or indeterministic. The review covers the topics of Newtonian classical mechanics, chaos theory and quantum mechanics in an attempt to get just a glimpse of this immensely complex debate. I strive to transfer these intricate concepts into a simpler form and have aimed to challenge the assumptions of many. That is, chaos theory may not destroy a deterministic Newtonian model and there is not simply one empirically correct interpretation of quantum mechanics. This essay therefore undermines the misconception that we can state with absolute certainty both that our actions are not predetermined and that some occurrences are inherently random.


THE INFLUENCE OF MUSIC ON OUR LIVES – CAN IT REALLY SOOTHE THE SAVAGE BEAST? ROBERT MILLER The opening line of Congreve’s The Mourning Bride is commonly misquoted as ‘the savage beast’, and is purposefully adopted in my essay title. Almeria bemoans her plight; music which ‘has charms to sooth a savage breast’ has no effect on her. What is this collection of patterns with its ability to engage our emotions, what purpose does it serve and do we still need it this far along in our evolutionary path? I seek to explore how the mind, heart, spirit and body can meet through music and that the misquotation is indeed apt – as the inexplicable response to music is our most human of traits. I believe Almeria’s condition is a transient amusia: a temporary deficiency in the complex network of brain connections, leading to an inability to translate the music received into a meaningful emotional response so that she is ‘more senseless grown than Trees, or Flint’.

TRAPPED IN WONDERLAND: DID JOHN TENNIEL’S IMAGES FOR ALICE IN WONDERLAND INHIBIT INDIVIDUALITY FOR FUTURE INTERPRETATIONS OF THE NOVEL? DOMINIC POVALL The characters of Alice in Wonderland are arguably some of the most recognisable and memorable in English literature. But why is this? Studying the book, I discovered that the characters are rarely, if ever, described. So why do we have such a clear mental image of what these characters should look like? The images we see correspond almost directly to the original illustrations by John Tenniel, and for this reason, I ask whether his illustrations inhibit the ideas of future artists, and what these artists have done to try to break the mould with their interpretations of the novel. My essay looks at how these artists have maintained some of the elements of the original Tenniel illustrations, whilst adding their own style and tone to create something original and new. ANTICANCER DRUGS: HOW DO THEY WORK? SUNG HEI WU Cancer has been one of the biggest causes of death in recent decades. We have spent an extensive amount of time and money on cancer research, looking for ways to cure cancer. Carcinogenesis occurs inevitably because of mutations that change the cell cycle completely. Alkylating agents and antimetabolites are commonly used to treat cancer. They have different mechanisms and side effects. Alkylating agents interfere with the cell cycle by combining themselves with the DNA, while antimetabolites inhibit enzymes that synthesise the DNA. With the breakthrough of medical technology, there are more new and radical approaches to cancer treatment, such as engineered genes and COX inhibitors.

“What is this collection of patterns with its ability to engage our emotions, what purpose does it serve and do we still need it this far along in our evolutionary path?”



WILL COOK (YEAR 13) T he theme of this year’s annual Dulwich College Symposium was ‘Society and the Individual’. It is a unique day, in which boys in the Sixth Form go off timetable to see a number of lectures that allow them to grapple with the big questions and ethical dilemmas simply not permitted by the everyday grind of an A-level syllabus. Boys could choose to attend talks by their own teachers or by a number of prestigious outside speakers, including Mark Littlewood, Director of the Institute for Economic Affairs, science journalist Matthew Chalmers; and Dr Lawrence Ratnasabapathy, Consultant Psychiatrist at Queen Elizabeth’s Hospital, who amused and intrigued the us in equal measure with his talk on violence in the film A Clockwork Orange . This year’s subject may have led primarily to talks on sociology and economics, but this was by no means the limit of the eclectic mix of seminars, which included, among other topics, Dickens, physics, mathematical probability and World

Wrestling Entertainment. The two sessions which I attended, one on personal identity and the other on the free market, were memorable not only for the speakers themselves but also the lively questions and discussion that ensued among students afterwards. The Upper School came together as a whole in the Great Hall after lunch to see two speakers talk about video games, a subject often dismissed in the media as being culturally and intellectually worthless. Tomas Rawlings, creator of ‘Endgame Syria’, and Ken Eklund, the man behind ‘World Without Oil’, were both able to explain lucidly how their field of expertise was actually a serious medium through which to explore the social and political developments of the 21st century. I came away from the day feeling enriched by what I had heard, and am sure that other students felt the same. It stands out in the College calendar as a day that truly exposes you to the kind of high-level thinking and discussion students at other schools might not experience until university.



Does one ‘native speaker’ turn a Pidgin into a Creole? Language, the individual and society – Mrs Collier . Tweets, Likes & Memes: the ethics and philosophy of Social Media, and the necessity for collective responsibility – Mr Swift . Society and the individual scientist: Watt, the Engineer who changed the world – Mr Kennedy . Physics in the Press – Education or Hype? Dr Matthew Chalmers , freelance science journalist. The Artist and the State: Joan Miró and the Abstract Expressionists in the Cold War – Mr Nash . Candles, Castles, Bricks and Beams – the individual and society in Great Expectations – Mr Eyre . Wrestling the other: grappling with race, class and gender in World Wrestling Entertainment – Mr Drew . Violence, the individual and society: integrating the offender back into society, fact and fiction - Mr Ratnasabapathy and Dr Lawrence Ratnasabapathy , consultant psychiatrist, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Barnet.

If you want to live the American Dream … Live in Denmark. How inequality impacts on individuals and society – Mr Storey .

Why you might not exist – a beginner’s guide to personal identity – Dr Kinch .

When Adam Delved and Eve Span, Who was Then a Gentleman? The Diggers and Levellers as social and political revolutionaries – Mr Northcote-Green . Five Steps to Tyranny: how ordinary people are surprisingly willing to do the tyrant’s dirty work and the susceptibility of human nature – Mr King . The Free Market, Society and the Individual – Mark Littlewood , Director-General of the Institute for Economic Affairs. ‘Where have all the handouts gone?!’ The psychology of different approaches to studying and learning at school and university – Dr Griffiths .

Ibsen’s primal scream: the struggle of the individual in an unjust society – Mr Trevill .

Queen Victoria’s Coronation in 1838 – who was it for? Dr Carnelley .

The Great Depression and the Great Recession: how individually rational decisions can break an economy, and society – Mr Fyfe .

There is such a thing as society: the Economics of Alienation – Mr Threadgould .

‘Why is mine bigger than yours?’ Competition and co-operation in Animal Societies – Dr Cue .

From the Cockpit to the Globe – Exploring Shakespeare’s Bankside through the Treasures of the College Archives – Mr Weaver . Hell is Other People: literary, philosophical, psychological and psychoanalytic perspectives – Dr Croally .

The rise of the Chav: is Thatcher to blame for this much-ridiculed and disaffected class in society? – Miss Gill .

Society and the Individual: Are we Architects or Products of our Social Worlds? Ideas and evidence from Social Psychology – Ms Simpson .

Shockingly Funny: Comedy and Society from Aristophanes to Frankie Boyle – Mr Fisher .

‘That’s So Random’: how chance influences our lives as individuals, and the societies we live in – Mr Andrews .

Hitler, German Society and the Power of Indoctrination – Mr Middleton .

. … Lies and Videotape: How We Fabricate Our Society and our Selves – Mr Brinton .


E verybody in Year 10 was quite apprehensive. We had been told simply that this day would be different from our normal school day. Only when we reached the Great Hall did we discover we were to investigate the death of the playwright Christopher Marlowe. The scene for the day was set by a fascinating talk from barrister Mark Gatley, who introduced us to a ghastly world of crime and told us about the cases he had worked on, which included the high- profile case of Stephen Lawrence. Mr Trevill and Mrs Angel explained in further detail how we would investigate the case of Marlowe and took us through the coroner’s report of the murder. At this point, we were split into our classes. My class began with the sword fighting activity, where we planned a re-enactment of the murder from the details outlined in the coroner’s report. Our decisions about where each person involved was at the time were to be acted out by visiting actors at the end of the day to illustrate the different conspiracy theories surrounding Marlowe’s death. Some people from each class also had the opportunity to view a surviving piece of original script from one of Marlowe’s plays, one of the most valuable documents in the College archives. Shown to us by Mr Weaver,


this was a simple piece of paper covered with simple writing and had a square whole for a nail to pin it up – clearly a very temporary document. However, its miraculous survival over the centuries has raised its value from worthless to rare and valuable. The rest of the morning held two more activities: forensic analysis and code breaking. The first of these was a practical insight into some of the ways in which chemists identify different substances, which can prove invaluable in an investigation if the cause of death or a link with the murderer can be shown. In our investigation, we had an unknown salt, and three identified salts. Test results from the unknown salt could be compared to those from the known ones, and we eventually worked out its composition. Run by the Classics department, the code-breaking task was to identify the meaning of each word in a series of fictional Elizabethan restaurant reviews. In the afternoon, after writing up a sensational report of the murder in the style of a modern tabloid, complete with head and strapline, introduction, main body and conclusion, we returned to the Great Hall to see the sword fighting re-enactment that we had all directed at different stages. There were two versions acted out: the first was where a drunken Marlowe was asked to pay for the drinks for himself and his friends, leading him to try to stab one of his companions. When they

“There were two versions acted out: the first was where a drunken Marlowe was asked to pay for the drinks for himself and his friends, leading him to try to stab one of his companions.”

then tried to restrain him, one involuntarily stabbed him through the eye with his dagger. All were shocked. In the second, perhaps less likely, scenario, Marlowe’s companions were plotting against him while he was buying drinks. When he returned, their plan went wrong, and out of frustration they started fighting each other as well as Marlowe. As well as Marlowe being stabbed fatally in the eye, all but one person ended up dying from subsequent fights. Finally, the archaeologist Simon Blatherwick gave a talk about the kind of sites and items from centuries ago that are found buried beneath London. It was a truly interesting day, with fascinating talks and a variety of different angles of looking at an event that, originally, must have just seemed like another murder in Elizabethan London.


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