Al Jazeera In 1000 Academic Studies

Al Jazeera In 1000 Academic Studies PhDs, Masters, Books and Research papers

Edited by:

First Edition: 2022


Introduction . ........................................................................................ 5

Part I : PhDs......................................................................................21

Parts II : Masters.............................................................................237

Part III : Books...............................................................................527

Part IV : Research Papers...............................................................587


Introduction This volume provides concise information on hundreds of academic works on Al Jazeera that have been conducted in different universities across the world over the last 25 years. Quarter a century of distinctive journalism positioned Al Jazeera at the top of media institutions and earned it increased respect for the ‘unique path’ it has crafted in Arab and global media. During what has been widely described as phenomenal rise, Al Jazeera attracted the attention, not only of audiences looking for alternative, contraflow media, but also of politicians and academics from various parts of the world. Interest in Al Jazeera took different forms, and has not always been favorable of its content or approach to journalism. Criticism and controversy accompanied its journey, since it was launched in 1996, and continue to be part of the ongoing debate over this media phenomenon. The difference in the ways scholars and students view Al Jazeera is clearly reflected in the vast and diverse amount of literature presented in this volume. One thousand (1000) research items are included here with the following details: author, title, institution, date, and the language in which the research has been done. Brief summaries of PhDs, Maters and books are also provided to give more information on their content. Some of the academic works listed in this volume focused specifically on Al Jazeera network or one of its components as a case study; others investigated it in the context of comparative studies along with other national, regional and global outlets. Those, which focused on Al Jazeera, examined its news, programmes, editorial policy, and its impact on media, politics and the public opinion. They explored the network’s history and development, its relation to Qatar and other Arab governments, and the challenges it has faced during its field coverage in many countries. The network’s components received varying degrees of scholars’ attention. However, the majority of studies focused on Al Jazeera satellite channel and Al Jazeera English. Other components like Al Jazeera.Net, Al Jazeera Mubasher, Al Jazeera Documentary, Al Jazeera Balkans, Al Jazeera America, AJ+, Al Jazeera Media Institute, have also been subject to a number of studies.


Comparative studies brought together the media in its various forms, including television, radio, newspapers, news agencies, websites, and social media. Al Jazeera was compared to a wide range of television channels such as BBC, CNN, Fox News, Sky News, PBS, Al-Hurra, Euro News, Russia Today, China’s CGTN, Japan’s NHK, Iran’s Press TV and Al-Alam, Korea’s Arirang TV, the Malaysian Bernama TV, The Singaporean NewsAsia, the French TF1, France2, TV5 and France 24, the German Deutsche Welle, the Spanish TVE, the Finnish YLE-1, the Turkish TRT, the Saudi Al Arabiya, MBC1, MBC3, Saudi Channel-1, Al Ekhbariya and Al-Majd, Abu Dhabi TV, Dubai TV, the Lebanese LBC, Al-Manar, Al Mayadeen, Al-Mustaqbal, the Egyptian Satellite Channel, Nile News, Dream TV, the Palestinian Al-Najah TV, Syria TV, Sama TV, ANN, the Iraqi Al Sumaria, the Libyan Al Jamahiriya and Al-Libiya, the Algerian An-Nahar, the Jordanian TV, Sudan TV, Khartoum TV, Ashorooq TV, Blue Nile, Yemen TV and the Ethiopian TV. Among radio stations, Al Jazeera was compared to BBC Radio, Radio Sawa, and Voice of the Arabs (Sawt Al-Arab). Newspapers with which Al Jazeera was compared include the New York Times, the Washington Post, Herald Tribune, USA Today, the Atlantic, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, the Guardian, the Telegraph, Le Monde, El País, China Daily, Times of India, Iran Review, the Brazilian Sao Paulo, the Finnish Helsinki Diary and Helsingin Sanomat, the Turkish Hürriyet, the Saudi Asharq Al-Awsat, the Egyptian Al-Masry Al-Youm, the Syrian Teshreen, the Tunisian La Persse and Le Temps, and the Moroccan Al- Massae. Comparative studies also compared Al Jazeera to Reuters, AP, AFP, Xinhua, Sputnik, Bahrain News Agency, and the Kurdish Furat news agency ANF. Regarding social media networks, studies included Twitter, Facebook and Instagram. Various theoretical frameworks, methodological approaches and research tools have been employed in this rich and fascinating body of scholarship. Students who conducted research on Al Jazeera belong to numerous specializations, research fields and academic disciplines, including but not limited to: media and communication, political science, geopolitics, sociology, psychology, international relations, war and conflict studies, peace studies, diplomacy, cultural studies, Arab studies, Middle East studies, education, management, law, literature, languages and linguistics, translations, etc.


Students and researchers will benefit from this compilation in different ways. It presents them with hundreds of research topics and a wealth of methodologies and analytical approaches. It also equips them with valuable information regarding the current state of research on Al Jazeera, so they build on the existing literature and take it further rather than replicate it. By putting together this significant body of academic research, which accumulated throughout the years, this volume will also be of great benefit to Al Jazeera itself. It sheds light on its experience from different angles and informs the staff and management at different levels of the magnitude of their network’s presence in the academic sphere. It is so interesting to see how this media phenomenon is perceived, researched and portrayed by an influential community such as the academia. This volume, which provides readers with one thousand (1000) academic lens, through which Al Jazeera can be seen, is more than an updated version of the previous edition published in 2016 under the title “Academic Research on Al Jazeera 1996-2016”. The number of studies included in the current edition has tripled, with many more topics, approaches, disciplines, universities and languages added. The accompanying table includes more than 300 universities in which PhDs and Masters on Al Jazeera were conducted. However, despite the amount of time and effort put in compiling this volume, we do not claim to have included all the research that has been done on Al Jazeera. Nonetheless, this is an unprecedented and unmatched collection of its kind put together in one publication. This work would not have been possible without the help and concerted effort of a number of colleagues at Al Jazeera Media Network and Al Jazeera Centre for Studies in particular. A number of students kindly provided us with the required information about their own research. Many thanks to them all and specifically to my former colleague at Al Jazeera Centre for Studies, Sara Nasr, whose contribution to the 2016 edition of the “Academic Research on Al Jazeera” was essential.


PhDs and Masters on Al Jazeera: Languages, Universities, Countries

University Language


1 English

Princeton University


2 English 3 English 4 English 5 English

Georgetown University


George Washington University Washington State University University of Texas at Austin

6 English

University of Texas at San Antonio


7 English 8 English 9 English 10 English 11 English 12 English

Texas Tech University University of Missouri


Missouri State University Minnesota State University

Northeastern University

Ohio University

13 English

Bowling Green State University


14 English 15 English 16 English 17 English 18 English

Arizona State University


University of Arizona

Arkansas State University

Auburn University

Kansas State University

19 English

Kutztown University of Pennsylvania


20 English 21 English 22 English

Iowa State University


University of South Carolina

University of Southern California


23 English

University of California


24 English

California State University


25 English

University of Florida


26 English

University of West Florida


27 English

Northwestern University


28 English

University of Michigan


29 English

US Army War College


30 English

Naval Postgraduate School


31 English

San José State University


22 English 33 English

Union College


Georgia State University

34 English

University of San Francisco


35 English

University of Oklahoma


36 English

Oklahoma State University


37 English

University of Southern Mississippi


38 English 39 English 40 English 41 English 42 English

Hawai’i Pacific University


University of Hawai’i at Manoa

Howard University

University of Virginia University of Memphis

University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign

43 English


44 English 45 English

Southern Illinois University


Villanova University


46 English 47 English 48 English 49 English 50 English 51 English 52 English 53 English 54 English 55 English

University of the Pacific


University of Louisiana Monroe

University of Utah

American Public University

Drexel University

University of North Dakoda

Oxford University


London School of Economics - LSE

University of Westminster

Goldsmiths University of London

School of Oriental and African Studies - SOAS

56 English


57 English 58 English 59 English

City University


University of West London

Kingston University London

60 English

Brunel University London


61 English

University of Birmingham


62 English

Durham University


63 English

University of Leicester


64 English 65 English 66 English

University of Leeds


Loughborough University

Lancaster University

67 English

University of Nottingham


68 English 69 English

University of Sussex


University of Essex


70 English

University of Exeter


71 English

University of Wales


72 English

Cardiff University


University of the West of England, Bristol

73 English


74 English 75 English 76 English 77 English 78 English 79 English 80 English 81 English 82 English 83 English 84 English 85 English 86 English 87 English

University of Bath


Bournemouth University Heriot-Watt University Newcastle University Manchester University University of Liverpool

Liverpool John Moores University

University of Winchester

University of Salford

University of Bedfordshire University of Hertfordshire University of Central England

York University

University of Saint Andrews

88 English

University of Edinburgh


89 English 90 English

University of Glasgow


University of the Arts London

Arab British Academy for Higher Education

91 English


92 English

Queen’s University Belfast



93 French 94 French 95 French 96 French 97 French 98 French 99 French

Sorbonne Université

France France France France France France France

Celsa Sorbonne Université

Université Paris-Saclay

Université Panthéon-Assas Paris 2

Université Paris 8

Université Paris 13

Institut d’études politiques de Paris

100 French

Université de Nice


101 French

Université Stendhal-Grenoble 3


102 French 103 French 104 French 105 French 106 French 107 French 108 French 109 French 110 French 111 French 112 English 113 English 114 English 115 English 116 English 117 English

Université Bordeaux 3

France France France France France France France France France France

Université Montpellier 3 Université de Toulouse 1 Université de Toulouse 2 Université de Bourgogne

Université de Caen Normandie

Université Robert Schuman

Université de Lyon 2

Université Jean Moulin Lyon 3

Université de Lorraine

Australian National University

Australia Australia Australia Australia Australia Australia

University of Melbourne

The University of Queensland

University of Canberra

Griffith University

Queensland University of Technology


118 English 119 English 120 English 121 English 122 English 123 English

University of Western Sydney University of New South Wales

Australia Australia Australia Australia Australia Australia

University of South Australia

La Trobe University Monash University Macquarie University

University of Algiers - Benyoucef Benkhedda

124 Arabic


125 Arabic

University of Oran


Abdelhamid ben Badis University of Mostaganem Kasdi Merbah University - Ouargla

126 Arabic


127 Arabic 128 Arabic 129 Arabic

Algeria Algeria Algeria

University of Oum El Bouaghi

Badji Mokhtar Annaba University University of Tlemcen - Abou bekr Belkaid Université de Batna 1 - Hadj Lakhdar University Mohamed Khider Biskra

130 Arabic


131 Arabic 132 Arabic 133 Arabic 134 Arabic 135 English 136 English 137 English 138 English 139 English 140 English

Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden

University of El-Oued

University of Jijel

Stockholm University

Lund University

Gothenburg University Södertörn University Malmö University Örebro University


141 Swedish 142 English 143 Swedish 144 English 145 English 146 Arabic 147 English 148 Arabic 149 Arabic 150 Arabic 151 Arabic 152 Arabic 153 English 154 Italian 155 Italian 156 Italian 157 Italian 158 Italian 159 Italian 160 Italian 161 Italian 162 German 163 German 164 German 165 German

Jönköping University Karlstad University Halmstad University Uppsala University University West Cairo University

Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden

Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt

American University in Cairo

Alexandria University Ain Shams University

Institute of Arab Research and Studies

Al-Azhar University Mansoura University

Misr International University

Università di Siena

Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy

Sapienza Università di Roma

Università di Bologna

Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia

Università di Macerata

IMT Institute of Advanced Studies

Università Luiss Guido Carli

Libera Università Internazionale

Freie Universität Berlin

Germany Germany Germany Germany

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

Universität Bonn

Universität Hamburg


166 German 167 German 168 German

Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen

Germany Germany Germany Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia

Philipps-University Marburg

Technische Universität Dresden

Bandung Islamic University 169 Indonesian Yogyakarta State University 170 Indonesian

Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah 171 Indonesian Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang 172 Indonesian

Universitas Negeri Semarang 173 Indonesian

174 English

Universitas Padjadjaran

Universitas Gadjah Mada 175 Indonesian

176 Turkish 177 Turkish 178 English 179 English 180 Turkish 181 Turkish 182 English 183 English 184 French 185 English 186 English 187 English 188 English 189 Arabic 190 Arabic

Istanbul Üniversitesi Marmara University Anadolu University Kadir Has University Akdeniz Üniversitesi

Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Canada Canada Canada Canada Canada Canada Jordan Jordan

Gazi University

Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi University of Ottawa University of Quebec

McGill University Ryerson University

Simon Fraser University Carleton University University of Jordan Middle East University


191 Arabic

Yarmouk University


World Islamic Science & Education University

192 Arabic


193 Arabic 194 Arabic 195 Arabic 196 Arabic 197 Arabic 198 Arabic 199 Arabic 200 English 201 Spanish 202 Spanish 203 Spanish 204 Spanish 205 Spanish 206 Spanish 207 Arabic 208 Arabic 209 Arabic 210 Arabic

Jordan Media Institute Aal Al-Bayt University

Jordan Jordan

Birzeit University

Palestine Palestine Palestine Palestine Palestine Palestine

An-Najah National University

Al-Aqsa University

Gaza Islamic University

Al-Azhar University, Gaza Arab American University

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Sudan Sudan Sudan Sudan

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

Universidad del País Vasco Universitat Pompeu Fabra Universitat de València Universidad de Malaga

University of Khartoum

Omdurman Islamic University

Neelain University

International University of Africa University of the Holy Quran and Islamic Sc. Sudan University of Science and Technology

211 Arabic


212 Arabic


213 English

University of Malaya



214 English 215 English 216 English

Universiti Putra Malaysia Universiti Sains Malaysia

Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia

International Islamic University

Limkokwing University of Creative Technology

217 English


218 English 219 English 220 English 221 English 222 Dutch 223 Arabic 224 Arabic 225 Arabic 226 French 227 French 228 Dutch 229 Dutch

University of Amsterdam

Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands

The Hague University

Leiden University

Erasmus University Rotterdam

Utrecht University

Mohammed V University

Morocco Morocco Morocco Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium

University of Moulay Ismail

Abdelmalek Essaâdi University

Université de Liège

Université Catholique de Louvain

University of Antwerp

Ghent University

Universidade de São Paulo 230 Portuguese

Brazil Brazil

Universidade de Brasília 231 Portuguese Brazil Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina 232 Portuguese Brazil Universidade Estadual Paulista 233 Portuguese China Tsinghua University 234 Chinese China China Foreign Affairs University 235 English

Shanghai National Chiao Tung University

236 Chinese


237 Chinese

Beijing institute of printing



138 English 239 English 240 English 241 English 242 Arabic 243 English 244 Arabic 245 Arabic 246 Russian 247 Russian

Jawaharlal Nehru University

India India India India

University of Hyderabad

Tata Institute of Social Sciences

Jamia Millia Islamia Lebanese University

Lebanon Lebanon Lebanon Lebanon

American University of Beirut

Beirut Arab University

Jinan University

Moscow State University

Russia Russia

National Research University

Saint-Petersburg School of Social Sciences Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia

248 English


249 Russian


250 Arabic 251 Arabic 252 Arabic 253 Arabic 254 Arabic

Baghdad University

Iraq Iraq Iraq

Tikrit University

Mustansiriyah University

University of Tripoli

Libya Libya

University of Benghazi

Libyan Academy for Postgraduate Studies

255 Arabic


256 German 257 German 258 English 259 Spanish

University of Vienna

Austria Austria

University of Innsbruck

Rosario University

Colombia Colombia Czec h Republic

Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

260 Czech

Charles University


Czec h Republic Denmark Denmark Finland Finland New Zealand New Zealand

261 Czech

University of West Bohemia

262 Danish 263 Arabic 264 Finnish 265 Finnish

Syddansk Universitet Arab Open Academy University of Helsinki

Tampere University

266 English

Auckland University of Technology

267 English

University of Canterbury

268 Polish 269 Polish 270 English 271 Arabic 272 Arabic 273 Arabic

University of Warsaw Jagiellonian University

Poland Poland

Hamad bin Khalifa University

Qatar Qatar

Doha Institute for Graduate Studies

King Saud University

Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia

Taif University

274 English

University of the Witwatersrand

South Africa

275 English 276 Arabic

Rhodes University University of Tunis

South Africa


Institute of Press and Information Sciences

277 Arabic


278 Arabic 279 Arabic 280 Spanish 281 Arabic 282 English

Sana’a University University of Aden

Yemen Yemen

Universidad del Salvador


Gulf University


University of Dhaka



283 English

Near East University


Facultad Latino-Americana de Ciencias Sociales

284 Spanish


285 English 286 English

University of Tartu


Addis Ababa University


287 Greek

Panteion University


288 English

Central European University

Hungary Iceland Ireland

289 Icelandic

University of Iceland University of Dublin Doshisha University

290 English

291 Japanese 292 French 293 English


Université du Luxembourg


Tribhuvan University


294 English

University of Lagos


University of Oslo 295 Norwegian


296 Arabic

Sultan Qaboos University


297 Slovenian 298 English 299 Arabic

University of Maribor


University of Zurich


Aleppo University

Syria UAE

300 English

American University of Sharjah

301 English Ezzeddine Abdelmoula Doha, October 2022

Midlands State University




1. Name: Rahim Mazid Title: Al Jazeera and the Conflict of Satellite Channels Institution: University of Baghdad Country: Iraq Date: 2000 Language: Arabic Abstract: This study examines the emergence of satellite news channels and the impact of the media on the life of Arab citizens. It deals specifically with the Al Jazeera satellite channel since its establishment in 1996 and the conditions in which it arose. It discusses the news values ​that guide the channel’s journalistic practice and provides full details of its operational modes, its sources of funding and its technical capabilities. It also sheds light on the way news is processed in line with the channel’s editorial policies. In addition, the study gives an overview of Al Jazeera’s journalists in terms of their expertise and professional backgrounds that add a unique value to the channel’s experience. The researcher presents these details from a critical analytical perspective and discusses various aspects of the topic, including the controversies surrounding it since its launch in an Arab political context hostile to freedom of expression. The study also analyzes the factors that contributed to the phenomenal success of Al Jazeera over its Arab and international competitors amid a fierce struggle to win the hearts and minds of Arab viewers.


2. Name: Mohammed Fagih Title: The Relationship between Relying on TV Stations and the Levels of Knowing the News Content in Yemeni Society: A Comparison between Al Jazeera, MBC, Abu Dhabi, and Yemen TV Channels Institution: Cairo University Country: Egypt, Date: 2002 Language: Arabic Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between the reliance of Yemeni Society on particular television channels and the Level of people’s knowledge of consumed news content. The study is composed of five chapters: the research methodology and problem, the theoretical framework of the study, live satellite television broadcasting, general results of surveys of news bulletins and television viewers and hypothesis results. The researcher conducted a comparative analysis of a sample of news bulletins from Al Jazeera, MBC, Abu Dhabi TV and Yemen TV. He also conducted a field survey on a random sample of 500 people, which he divided into three categories: low-level tier, medium- level tier and high-level tier. In addition, then he surveyed a deliberate sample of 40 expatriates from January to February 1999. The findings showed major statistical differences between males and females in terms of exposure to television channels and news bulletins. Statistical differences also existed between expatriates of different educational backgrounds and their exposure to television channels. The findings indicated that both Al Jazeera and Abu Dhabi TV gave more time to news coverage but their coverage was generally negative.


3. Name: Mohammed Rayan Barayan Title: Television News in Saudi Arabia (A Comparison between Saudi Ch1, Al Jazeera, MBC and ANN) Institution: University of Leeds Country: United Kingdom Date: 2002 Abstract: The quality of the news service on Saudi Television has been characterized by poor quality and has failed to satisfy Saudi viewers as indicated by some of the previous studies. At that time, satellite broadcasting was still at its embryonic stage and Saudi viewers had no alternative available to them. With the appearance of specialized satellite news channels, the demand for stronger television news service became even more important. The researcher conducted fieldwork study in Saudi Arabia, Qatar and London during the period from 15 January to 15 March 2000. This study explores and compares the views and impressions of Saudi viewers about the quality of news service they receive from the channel one of Saudi television, Al Jazeera, MBC, and ANN. 8 groups of 48 persons from the Saudi audience were interviewed. These groups include academics, officials, King Saud University students, Imam Bin Saud University students, farmers and sales merchants, unemployed and uneducated. A content analysis of a total of 497 news stories or the total production of the four stations during the week starting on 12-18 February 2000 was also undertaken.


4. Name: Francesco Congiu Title: War Misinformation and the Al Jazeera Case Institution: Università di Bologna Country: Italy Date: 2003 Language: Italian Abstract:

How was it possible to believe that an old dictator in decline, struggling with a collapsing country, could really constitute an imminent danger to world peace? Even more peculiarly, how was it possible to connect this character with Osama bin Laden and the attacks of September 11? War and information, disinformation during war times, news in war contexts and its systematic distortion are key terms of this investigation. This thesis examines the media narratives of two Iraqi conflicts to see what has changed and what remained unchanged comparing the 2003 Iraq war with the 1991 Operation Desert Storm. The findings show that there has been a change of perspective on the Iraq war and the representation of the US led “war on terror”. It was clear that the Arab media in general and Al Jazeera channel in particular, contributed to this change of perspective. Among the implications of this change is the making of an autonomous and relatively homogeneous Arab point of view, along with a rising mediascape that is no longer monopolized or dominated by the West.


5. Name: Yousef Ibrahim Al-Rojaie Title: A Discourse Analysis of Interruption, Moderator Role, and Address Terms in Arab and American Panel News Interviews (A Comparative Study of Al Jazeera’s ‘Opposite Direction’ and the PBS ‘NewsHour’) Institution: Oklahoma State University Country United States Date: 2003 Language: English Abstract: This study examines the similarities and differences between Arabic and English speakers in their language use in television talk shows. Using discourse analysis, this study employed a descriptive, comparative, and analytical examination of three specific features: interruption, the moderator’s role, and address term usage. The two programs selected for analysis were Al Jazeera’s ‘Al-Ittijah Al-Muakis’ (the Opposite Direction) and the PBS ‘NewsHour’. In examining the moderator’s role, the analysis was limited to three tasks: encouraging disagreement, challenging the guests, and managing disagreements. In analyzing the use of interruption and address terms, the study focused on the frequency and function of use. The findings identified a number of common and different uses of these features. In using interruption, Arabic-speakers were found to employ interruption more than double the percentage of use compared to the English ones. For the moderator’s role, the Arab and American moderators carried out the task of encouraging disagreement similarly. The Arab moderator challenges the guests in a direct and confrontational way through a variety of means. However, the American moderator’s challenges were less frequent and more indirect using mitigated strategies.


6. Name: Ahmad Al Theidi Title: Al Jazeera Satellite Channel from Regional to Global: A Question of Objectivity and News Flow Institution: University of Sussex Country: United Kingdom Date: 2003 Language: English Abstract: This thesis explores the establishment and development of Al Jazeera satellite channel, which represents an important step in news flow reciprocity. Using multiple tools to collect and analyze data, including interviews, observation and content analysis, this thesis focuses on three key stages in Al Jazeera’s development: its emergence and early development in November 1996, its coverage of the Palestinian intifada in 2000 and the aftermath of the dramatic events of 11 September 2001. Since its inception, Al Jazeera has challenged the political setting of the Arab world by questioning various social and political taboos. The study highlights how the channel encouraged freedom of speech in the region and brought a collective Arab public opinion into being. It also explores how the Western-style operation of the channel has caused an ongoing controversy about its agenda and raised questions about its goals and objectives. The researcher engages with the question of objectivity in two ways. First, through comparing Al Jazeera’s coverage of the second Palestinian intifada with that of CNN, and second through interviews with staff members of the channel as well as Kuwaiti elites.


7. Name: Vincenzo Damiani Title: War Reporting: From Russell to Al Jazeera Stories, Analysis and Evolution of a Difficult Profession Institution: University of Macerata Country: Italy Date: 2004 Language: Italian Abstract: The history of war journalism begins with the Irish Bill Russell, the first real correspondent, who, from the “hottest” area of the world, told us about epochal Crimean war with absolute freedom of expression. Russell was a maverick who could explain to those who were miles away what a battle really was, whith no censorship or convenient truth. This reporter’s stories opened a breach in a wall that, until then, had kept citizens and truth separate from the battlefields. This study presents a careful analysis starting from the Crimean war to the present day. It examines modern war reporting focusing on the role of Al Jazeera in the face of new world leaders who still try to monopolize information. Wars are usually seen, told and analyzed from the perspectives of protagonists and the role of independent correspondents remains the factor that makes a real difference in seeking the truth and understanding events in the battlefield. However, there are always doubts during war times as to whether viewers at home are properly informed or illusioned and lied to in the name of national security.


8. Name: Ali Abbas Jamal Title: The Political Influence of Al Jazeera Network on Kuwaitis: A Uses and Gratifications Study Institution: University of Southern Mississippi Country: United States Date: 2004 Language: English Abstract: This study provides a comparative analysis examining the motivations that urged Kuwaitis to watch Al Jazeera and whether those motivations differed from gratifications obtained from watching the Kuwaiti television. This study explores Al Jazeera’s political influence on Kuwaitis by examining the associations between motivations and time spent watching it on one hand and interest in politics, frequency of voting, discussion of civic issues, trust in government, and political efficacy on the other hand. The findings revealed that 82% of Kuwaitis watched Al Jazeera; those who did not thought the network’s coverage of Kuwait was biased. Two main factors compelled Kuwaitis to watch Al Jazeera: social and personal. Kuwaitis favored Al Jazeera over local Kuwaiti television for excitement, while they favored Kuwaiti television over Al Jazeera for guidance, information, and services. Demographic variables were important in deciding what motivations led to watching Al Jazeera versus local Kuwaiti television. Males with higher education level, higher income, and older individuals preferred Al Jazeera to Kuwaiti television. Females with lower education level, lower income, and younger individuals received greater gratifications from Kuwaiti television than from Al Jazeera.


9. Name: Julian Awwad Title: Al Jazeera’s Discourse of ‘Arabness’: An Examination of the Discursive Construction of Identity in Talk Show Programming Institution: McGill University Country: Canada Date: 2005 Language: English Abstract: This study provides an analysis of Al Jazeera’s Arabic programming, which is lacking in burgeoning English-language academic literature. It highlights the way in which treatment of global current affairs informs a sense of Arab identity on a regional level. It also argues that, apart from competitive broadcast journalists, Al Jazeera offers an oppositional discourse of identification that does not necessarily challenge the hegemony of Western media discourses. By employing an oppositional stance expressed in typical anti-colonialist and anti-imperialist terms, the channel constructs an overarching notion of ‘Arabness’ that is predominantly discursive. The study analyses three talk shows: ‘Al Ittijah Al-Mu’akis’ (The Opposite Direction), ‘Bila Hudud’ (Without Boundaries) and ‘Lil Nisa’ Faqat’ (For Women Only). These talk shows are ideal for examining the oppositional discourse because they constitute important forums in which perceptions of identity are cultivated in the discussion of current affairs. Each episodes is treated as a media “text” that contributes to the formation of a discourse of ‘Arabness’. The analysis identifies the recurrent discursive patterns and strategies in providing a basis for the discursive category of identification across Arab state borders.


10. Name: Noureddine Miladi Title: Al Jazeera Satellite Channel and its Role in the Construction of an Arab Diasporic Public Opinion in Britain and France Institution: University of Westminster Country: United Kingdom Date: 2005 Language: English Abstract: Respondents from Arab communities in Britain and France were recruited as part of a survey research as well as for focus groups and family interviews in order to understand their perceptions of television messages. The perceived impact of Al Jazeera and its role in the construction of public opinion has been measured in this research by analyzing the Arab audience’s reception and use of satellite TV. This research finds that in spite of challenges to censor it, Al Jazeera enjoys more credibility than any other television network, whether Arab or Western and state- or private-owned. However, Western channels are perceived by Arab viewers to have biased reporting when covering news about the Arab and Muslim world. Viewers claim they watch BBC, CNN and other Western channels to compare their news coverage with that of Al Jazeera. This thesis also argues that bilingual Arab audiences in diaspora have cultivated the ability to choose, compare and contrast television messages across various satellite channels. Arab satellite television led by Al Jazeera increased communication and exchange of views and information between Arab audiences surveyed in this research.


11. Name: Hibah Atiya Title: Reporting the News of the Palestinian Issue on both TV5 and Al Jazeera Channels Institution: Cairo University Country: Egypt Date: 2005 Language: Arabic Abstract: This thesis consists of five chapters: the methodological framework, the theoretical background, perspectives of the Palestinian cause, its developments and repercussions on the international arena, and the impact of the political positions of France and Qatar’s on news coverage of the issue on TV5 and Al Jazeera. The researcher conducted analytical and field studies using surveys. In her analytical study, she analyzed a sample of publications and news programmes on both TV5 International and Al Jazeera broadcast from early March 2003 to late May of the same year. In addition, she reviewed a sample of 200 previous studies carried out by Egyptian researchers. The study reached a number of conclusions, including the following: TV5 broadcasts numerous brief news, while Al Jazeera broadcasts fewer, but more detailed news bulletins. The number of stories related to the Palestinian cause on Al Jazeera is much larger than that on TV5. Al Jazeera has more viewers from the Egyptian elite than TV5 as the latter lacks attraction. The Egyptian elite relies more on Al Jazeera than on TV5 as a source of information regarding the Palestinian cause.


12. Name: Yasser Abdel Rahim Title: Imaging Identity: A Study of Al Jazeera’s Online News and its Representation of ‘Arabness’ with Particular Attention to Arabs in Diaspora Institution: McGill University Country: Canada Date: 2005 Language: English Abstract: This study investigates the relations between media image, online news and the framing of identity. It scrutinizes images of Arab identity and their representation on Al Jazeera Net in order to examine how the site constructs the ‘reality’ of Arabs. The study begins by defining Arabness in terms of ethnic, cultural and postcolonial identities. It assesses the origins of Arab identity and examines them as sources of meaning for Arabs. Through the lens of a remediation approach, the study explores newly emerging practices in the representation of news, and investigates how the design of Al Jazeera Net alters the construction of meaning. The frames governing the representation of Arab identity determine the complexity of the image of Arabness and reveal the differences between the acknowledged perspectives and the Al Jazeera evolving identity. The study conceives Al Jazeera Net as a space for reciprocal relationship with Arabs in diaspora and as a site for the overlapping of the local and global in media representations. It also considers how Arabs in North America perceive their identity, and how they evaluate Al Jazeera as pan-Arab media.


13. Name: Alamuddin Ahmed Mohamed Title: The Standards of Television News Coverage: A Comparative Study of Abu Dhabi and Al Jazeera Satellite Channels Institution: University of Baghdad Country: Iraq Date: 2006 Language: Arabic Abstract: This study examines the professional standards of news coverage and the criteria according to which news are selected, ordered and broadcast. Through a comparative perspective between ‘Al Madar’ of Abu Dhabi TV and Al Jazeera’s ‘Hasad Al Youm’, the study tries to understand the role of these standards in determining the nature of news coverage. The research sample consists of six months of broadcasting of both programmes (July-December 2005). The researcher used the observation and interviews tools to collect the required data. The research findings showed a discrepancy between the two channels regarding news coverage methods and standards. Al Jazeera channel adopts the simple method of coverage (abstract news) to gain access to more scoops, while Abu Dhabi TV adopts the composite coverage (pictorial and analytical). The results also showed the predominance of international affairs in the coverage of Abu Dhabi TV, while Al Jazeera’s attention focused more on Arab issues and affairs. The study also found that local news and the news of the Gulf Cooperation Council countries do not have priority in both channels.


14. Name: Abdo Al Mikhlafi Title: Al Jazeera as a Global and Region Media Player Institution: Philipp University of Marburg Country: Germany Date: 2006 Language: German Abstract:

This study presents Al Jazeera as a media and political phenomenon. It begins by introducing the reality of Arab media before and during the ‘age of satellites’. Consequently, it divides the history of Arab media into two periods: pre- and post-Al Jazeera. The study then shifts to the establishment and development of the channel, its relationship with the Qatari government, its funding, its editorial policy, and the size of its audience. The researcher conducted an analytical study of the content of Al Jazeera’s selected sample of programmes. He analyzed Al Jazeera’s role in revolutionizing Arab public opinion through its controversial approach in addressing problematic issues and breaking the taboos of Arab media. The study follows Al Jazeera’s transformation from regional to international media and observes how it turned into an important player on the international political and media stage. In the last chapter, the study explores the future of Al Jazeera after it has become an important element in Arab political culture by contributing to the formation of accumulative political awareness that will be the main drive for change in the Arab world.


15. Name: Rasha El-Ibiyary Title: Televisual Representation of the ‘War on Terror’: A Comparative Analysis of Al Jazeera and CNN in Covering the 2003 Invasion of Iraq Institution: University of Newcastle Upon-Tyne Country: United Kingdom Date: 2006 Language: English Abstract: This thesis examines the power relationship binding the military and media in television coverage of contemporary wars, and shaping the visual representations that foster public opinion. Al Jazeera was chosen because its coverage has deeply challenged the Pentagon’s version of the whole issue, as shown on CNN and other American and Western media. Through thematic content and discourse analysis, the study attempts to determine the role played by Al Jazeera and CNN, concerning both the audience and military of both sides of the conflict. It also looks at the extent to which their communicated imagery and perspective reflect this role. The analysis demonstrates the decisive impact of military power on televisual knowledge as well as its limitations in fulfilling strategic goals. The evident power exercised by the aggressors’ media on its televisual representation seems to have been deeply resisted, and even challenged, by Al Jazeera’s abundant supply of imagery, speeches and viewpoints of official figures from the invaded country. The perceived power of Al Jazeera’s imagery and its accompanying discourse vis- à-vis CNN was strikingly indicated in this comparative content and discourse analysis.


16. Name: Nam-Doo Kim Title: Making News out of Al Jazeera: A Comparative Content Analysis of American and British Press Coverage of Events and Issues Involving the Arab Media Institution: University of Texas at Austin Country: United States Date: 2006 Language: English Abstract: In the recent years, Al Jazeera satellite television has become both an important source of news and a controversial actor challenging U.S. foreign policy. This cross-national study compares journalistic responses to the rise of Al Jazeera in the U.S. and Britain, considering both newspaper editorial policy and national context as possible reasons for differentiation. From multi-theoretical perspectives, the study examines the extent to which the two countries’ newspapers diversified use of Al Jazeera as a source of news, expanded the range of non-official voices in coverage of issues involving Al Jazeera and employed normative ideas about journalism including Arab journalism or problematize the U.S. handling of Arab media. The findings indicate that the differences between the pro-war and anti-war press were far more pronounced than were the differences between U.S. and British press, not only in their editorial view of Al Jazeera but also in other features of reporting. The results of a thematic analysis show noticeable differences between the two countries’ anti-war newspapers as the New York Times invoked themes ‘defending’ Al Jazeera, while the Guardian favored themes ‘attacking’ the U.S. government.


17. Name: Tal Samuel-Azran Title: Contra-flow in global News: A Case Study of U.S. Media’s Representation of Al Jazeera’s News Material in the Wake of 9/11 Institution: University of Melbourne Country: Australia Date: 2006 Language: English Abstract: Covering the rebroadcasting of Al Jazeera’s images on major US television networks since 9/11, this study draws an alternative picture revealing that the advent of Al Jazeera has eroded the counter-hegemonic debate in US war reporting. It shows how the US government persuaded television networks to reformat legitimate war images from Al Jazeera, labelling it a deviant network, in order to eliminate war criticism. An examination of the US reception of bloggers and network carriers of Al Jazeera English reveals the US administration’s resolve to limit public discourse. This study provides a timely contribution to the debate about global news flow and the role of rising regional news players. These players either help pluralize and democratize the traditional Western dominance of news and contribute to an emergent global news sphere or, alternatively, become co-opted and politically neutered when re- presented within the Western news prism going against the grain of much current thought in the field of media scholarship. The researcher argues that the spectacular rise of Al Jazeera should not be simply taken as evidence for an emergent and democratizing global public sphere.


18. Name: Noha Atif Title: The Role of the News Bulletins in the Arab Satellite TV Channels in Setting the Priorities of the Egyptian Public about Egyptian, Arab and International Issues: The Cases of Al Jazeera

and Al Arabiya Channels Institution: Cairo University Country: Egypt Date: 2006 Language: Arabic Abstract:

This comparative study analyzes a selection of programmes broadcast by Al Jazeera and Al Arabiya including the news bulletins of 22:00 Cairo time on Al Jazeera (Harvest of the Day) and the 21:00 news bulletin on Al Arabiya (Evening Bulletin). The sampled materials cover June and July 2005. The researcher also conducted a survey on a sample of 60 respondents. She also conducted a field study on a deliberate non- random sample of 420 respondents divided evenly into three social levels: high level (Heliopolis, Al Muhandisin), intermediate (Al Qubba Gardens, the Pyramid) and low level (Shubra, Imbaba). The research findings showed that females came first in terms of news presentation by 48.7% followed by males (47.3%). The stories contained in the news were distributed according to their position in bulletin: central (73.6%), introduction and conclusion (13.2%). The stories contained in the news were distributed according to the length of the story contained in the bulletin: short stories (49.7%), long stories (39%) and medium (11.3%). The most important news values in an orderly manner are seriousness (79.2), conflict (69.5%), proximity, positivity, fame, neutrality and strangeness.


19. Name: Maha Bashri Title: The Opinion and the Other Opinion: A Seminal Study of Al Jazeera’s Agenda Setting Effect in the Arab- Islamic Public Sphere Institution: University of South Carolina Country: United States Date: 2007 Language: English Abstract: Any form of communication is a cultural construction. The same should hold true for communication theories; agenda setting being a leading one. Today, there are more than 350 agenda setting studies, some examining non-Western cultures. These studies are based on contingent factors that are in most cases unique to Western societies. Cross- cultural studies rarely try to adapt the theory to the cultural, political and social variations in different societies. The idea that news networks set the agenda in politics and diplomacy is not a new one. However, some networks have greater influence than others. CNN is one of those networks that has risen to global prominence because of its coverage of the first Gulf War. It is the network that sets the agenda for the public, hence the CNN effect. Today scholars claim that Al Jazeera yields the same influence in the Arab-Islamic world. However, this claim does not rest on any empirical data. This dissertation examines the agenda setting that role Al Jazeera plays in the Arab-Islamic world. It looks at the contingent factors for agenda setting theory in the Arab-Islamic world.


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